Ratio between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by CD8+T cells. Results represent the ratio between pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ or TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine production in malaria-naïve (n = 12) and P. vivax-infected donors (n = 17). A. naïve CD45RA+CD8+ T cells. B. double-positive CD45RA+CD45RO+ CD8+ T cells. C. memory CD45RO+CD8+ T cells. Mann–Whitney test was used for comparison and the result was expressed as the median with interquartile range.