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Table 2 Summary of characteristics of participants by adherence categories

From: Determinants of antiretroviral adherence among HIV positive children and teenagers in rural Tanzania: a mixed methods study

  Optimal Suboptimal P-Value
Variables n % n %  
Sex      
 Male 46 69 21 31  
 Female 35 71 14 29 0.75
Age-school      
 Pre-school age 2-5 yrs 23 77 7 23  
 >6 yrs never been to school 11 58 8 42  
 Primary school age and in primary 21 70 9 30  
 Secondary school but in primary 19 70 8 30  
 Secondary school age and in secondary 7 70 3 30 0.74
Baseline CD4 + cell count      
 Below 350 cells/mm3 33 66 17 34  
 Above 350cells/mm3 42 71 17 29  
 Missing 6 86 1 14 0.54
Age specific immunosuppression      
 Not Immunosuppressed 61 70 26 30  
 Immunosuppressed 16 67 8 33  
 Missing 4 80 1 20 0.83
Duration under ART      
 0-2 yrs 30 65 16 35  
 >2 yrs 41 68 19 32  
 Missing 10 100 0 0 0.09
Parental status      
 Both parent 32 82 7 18  
 Single parent 20 67 10 33  
 Non-parental caretaker 29 62 18 38 0.11
Knows that treatment is lifelong      
 Yes 57 70 24 30  
 No 24 69 11 31 0.85
Disclosure of HIV status      
 Yes 25 64 14 36  
 No 53 75 18 25  
 Missing 3 50 3 50 0.29
Adherence assistance      
 Parents 48 74 17 26  
 Non-parental adherence assistants 33 65 18 35 0.29
Visited traditional healer for HIV cure*      
 Yes 15 75 5 25  
 No 66 69 29 31  
 Missing 0 0 1 100 0.28
Pill burden      
 1 pill 35 69 16 31  
 2-3 pills 46 71 19 29 0.80
Joined any HIV support group      
 Yes 12 57 9 43  
 No 69 73 26 27 0.16
WHO clinical staging      
 Stage I & II 20 65 11 35  
 Stage III & IV 26 65 14 35  
 Missing 35 78 10 22 0.33
Socioeconomic status      
 Low 30 73 11 27  
 Median 16 73 6 27  
 High 27 63 16 37  
 Missing 8 80 2 20 0.61
  1. Poor adherence = less than 80%;optimal adherence = 80% or more; WHO = World Health Organization;yrs = years; * visited a healer who claimed to have a cure for HIV/AIDS; Immune-suppressed if CD4 < 500 cells/mm3 for children aged <6 years and if CD4 < 350 cells/mm3 for children aged 6 years and above;% = Row percentages; p = Chi2 P-value.