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Table 2 Hazard Ratios for first Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among patients with end-stage renal disease according to potential risk factors

From: Risk and prognosis of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among individuals with and without end-stage renal disease: a Danish, population-based cohort study

  Unadjusted Adjusted*  
Characteristic HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) P value (in adjusted analysis)
Sex
Female 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)  
Male 1.12 (1.00–1.24) 1.08 (0.96–1.20) 0.20
Age
<50 years 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)  
50-64 years 1.02 (0.90–1.16) 0.87 (0.76–1.00) 0.06
≥65 years 1.09 (0.96–1.25) 0.87 (0.75–1.00) 0.06
Diabetes mellitus
No 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)  
Yes 1.33 (1.18–1.50) 1.05 (0.91–1.22) 0.52
m-CCI
Low 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)  
Moderate 1.33 (1.15–1.54) 1.20 (1.03–1.40) 0.02
High 1.86 (1.62–2.14) 1.61 (1.37–1.91) <0.001
Calendar period
1992–1996 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)  
1997–2001 0.92 (0.80–1.06) 0.86 (0.75–0.98) 0.03
2002–2006 0.81 (0.70–0.93) 0.72 (0.62–0.83) <0.001
2007–2009 0.78 (0.64–0.94) 0.69 (0.57–0.84) <0.001
Cause of ESRD
Glomerulonephritis 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)  
Diabetes mellitus 1.55 (1.29–1.86) 1.77 (0.95–1.45) 0.13
CIN 1.05 (0.84–1.31) 0.98 (0.78–1.22) 0.85
Hypertensive kidney 1.24 (1.04–1.48) 1.15 (0.96–1.38) 0.12
Polycystic kidney 0.55 (0.41–0.74) 0.54 (0.40–0.72) <0.001
Vasculitis 1.42 (1.06–1.90) 1.25 (0.92–1.68) 0.15
Other 1.19 (0.94–1.52) 1.09 (0.85–1.40) 0.50
Renal replacement therapy
Transplantation 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)  
Hemodialysis 3.95 (3.34–4.68) 5.41 (4.13–7.09) <0.001
Peritoneal dialysis 0.58 (0.51–0.65) 2.07 (1.46–2.95) <0.001
  1. *Adjusted for sex, age, diabetes, modified Charlson Comorbidity Index, calendar period, cause of ESRD, and renal replacement therapy. m-CCI score categories low = 0-1, moderate = 2-3, and high > 3. HR: hazard ratio; CI: confidence interval; m-CCI: modified Charlson Comorbidity Index; ESRD: end-stage renal disease.