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Table 5 Covariates used to estimate diarrhea and its etiologies in children under five in 2010 [6,7]

From: Deconstructing the differences: a comparison of GBD 2010 and CHERG’s approach to estimating the mortality burden of diarrhea, pneumonia, and their etiologies

  CHERG GBD 2010
  Neonatal Postneonatal U5
  VRMCM a VAMCM b VRMCM a VAMCM b CODEm c
Covariates for diarrhea U5 mortality Diarrhea not estimated in VRMCM due to few diarrhea deaths Neonatal mortality rate U5 population Mid study year Health care access
   DPT vaccination coverage Coverage of the third dose of diphtheria pertussis and tetanus vaccine (DPT3) % urban population Rota virus coverage
   Quad-DPT vaccination coverage WHO Europe Region vs. other WHO regions U5 mortality rate Access to sanitation
   Period (early/late/overall) Gross national income (per capita) Oral rehydration therapy coverage Access to water
      Malnutrition in under 2
      Education
      Population density
      GDP (lag-time)
Covariates for diarrhea etiologic fractions n/a National coverage or subnational but nationally representative (study-level)
      Inpatient or outpatient/community-based settings (study-level)
      Number of pathogens tested for (study-level)
      Lag-distributed income (country-level)
  1. aVital registration multi-cause model, bverbal autopsy multi-cause model, ccause of death ensemble model.