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Table 4 Covariates used to estimate pneumonia/LRI and its etiologies in children under five in 2010/2011 [6,7]

From: Deconstructing the differences: a comparison of GBD 2010 and CHERG’s approach to estimating the mortality burden of diarrhea, pneumonia, and their etiologies

  CHERG GBD 2010
  Neonatal Postneonatal U5
  Severe infection Pneumonia Lower respiratory infection (LRI)
  VRMCM a VAMCM b VRMCM a VAMCM b VRMCM a VAMCM b CODEm c
Covariates for pneumonia/LRI U5 mortality Early neonatal: Neonatal mortality rate Early neonatal: Female literacy All model covariatesd All model covariatesd Health care access
Access to antenatal care DPT vaccination coverage Female literacy Low birth weight    Hib3 vaccination coverage (country-level)
Female literacy Quad-DPT vaccination coverage Neonatal mortality rate Births with skilled attendant    Access to sanitation
Indicator of the EMRO region Period (early/late/overall) Births with skilled attendant Tetanus toxoid vaccine coverage at birth    Access to water
Late neonatal:   Indicator of the EMRO region     Malnutrition in under 2
Female literacy   Late neonatal:     Education
U5 mortality rate   Access to antenatal care     Population density
Births with skilled attendant   Indicator of the EMRO region     
Low birth weight   General fertility rate     
Indicator of the EMRO region   Births with skilled attendant     
Covariates for pneumonia/LRI etiologic fractions Pneumococcal vaccination coverage Inpatient or outpatient/community-based settings (study-level)
        Hib3 vaccination coverage (country-level)
        Health system access (country-level)
  1. aVital registration multi-cause model, bverbal autopsy multi-cause model, ccause of death ensemble model, dfor details, see Liu et al., Lancet, 2012 web appendices.