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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of all patients and according to the maximum procalcitonin levels measured (PCTmax)

From: Procalcitonin levels and bacterial aetiology among COPD patients admitted to the ICU with severe pneumonia: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics All n = 34* PCT<0.1 n = 3 0.1<PCT<0.25 n = 7 PCT>0.25 n = 22
Age, yr 70 ± 10 71 ± 10 71 ± 10 69 ± 10
Male sex, no.(%) 28(82) 2(66) 6(86) 18(82)
SAPS II score 37 [20-50] 27 [23-30] 31 [24-44] 40 [34-62]
LOD score 6 [4-10] 6 [4-10] 6 [411] 6 [4-10]
Comorbidities, no (%)     
   Current smokers, 11(32) 0 4(57) 7(32)
   Chronic alcohol abuse 8(24) 2(66) 1(14) 4(18)
   Obesity 12(35) 3(100) 2(29) 5(23)
   Coronary artery disease 14(41) 1(33) 3(43) 9(41)
   Hypertensive heart disease 17(50) 1(33) 2(29) 12(55)
   Congestive heart disease 9(26) 1(33) 0 8(36)
   Diabetes mellitus 13(38) 0 3(43) 8(36)
Chronic pseudomonas colonisation, no (%) 4(12) 0 2(29) 2(9)
Antibiotics in 24 H prior ICU admission, no (%) 11(32) 0 2(29) 8(36)
During the previous 30-day period¶¶     
   Antibiotics for AECOPD 7(20) 0 2(29) 5(23)
   Oral steroid therapy for AECOPD 8(24) 1(33) 3(43) 5(23)
Severity of COPD, no (%)     
   GOLD stage I (mild) 2(6) 0 0 2(9)
   GOLD stage II (moderate) 9(26) 1(33) 0 6(27)
   GOLD stage III (sever) 3(9) 0 0 3(14)
   GOLD stage IV (very sever) 20(59) 2(66) 7(100) 11(50)
Home oxygen, no (%) 18(53) 2(66) 5(71) 11(50)
Home non-invasive ventilation, no (%) 6(18) 1(33) 2(28) 3(14)
Oral or inhaled steroid, no (%) 19(56) 2(66) 6(85) 10(45)
Examination at ICU admission, no (%)     
   Dyspnea 34(100) 3(100) 7(100) 22(100)
   Cough 11(32) 1(33) 3(43) 7(32)
   Sputum 16(47) 2(66) 3(43) 11(50)
   Rales 15(44) 1(33) 1(14) 12(55)
   Wheezing 16(47) 2(66) 6(86) 7(32)
   Body temperature, °C 37.3 ± 1.2 37.0 ± 0.7 36.5 ± 0.7 37.7 ± 1.3
   Leucocytes count (×109/L) 13.7 ± 6.4 11.2 ± 0.4 12.5 ± 3.4 14.9 ± 7.4
Pneumonia severity index (PSI)     
   PSI I, II, III 4(11) 1(33) 2(28) 1(5)
   PSI IV 14(42) 1(33) 4(57) 8(36)
   PSI V 16(47) 1(33) 1(14) 13(59)
  1. Values are given as No.(%), median [25%-75% interquartile range], or mean ± standard deviation
  2. * Levels of procalcitonin (PCT) were assessed in 32/34 patients. PCT is given in μg/L
  3. One patient receiving antibiotic in 24 h prior ICU was not assessed for PCT levels
  4. ¶¶ Patients treated with antibiotic or oral steroid during the previous 30-day period for exacerbation of COPD were exclusive of those receiving antibiotic in 24 h prior ICU