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Table 4 Risk factors for carriage of a resistant or a non-susceptible pneumococcal strain to penicillin and to erythromycin

From: Risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: data from a nation-wide surveillance study in Greece

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  OR 95%CI P OR 95%CI P
Penicillin resistance       
Male gender 0.75 0.49–1.15 0.196 0.76 0.48–1.19 0.244
Age <3 years old 0.79 0.66–0.94 0.009 0.76 0.70–1.06 0.164
Sampling period* 0.48 0.31–0.73 0.001 0.57 0.36–0.92 0.023
Antibiotic use in the last month 1.94 1.26–2.98 0.002 2.00 1.26–3.17 0.003
Antibiotic use in the last trimester 1.07 0.70–1.63 0.749 1.09 0.69–1.71 0.696
History of acute otitis media episodes 1.07 0.70–1.63 0.749 0.90 0.54–1.51 0.709
History of respiratory tract infections 0.89 0.50–1.58 0.652 0.96 0.48–1.92 0.928
Other sibling(s) in the household <8 years old 0.96 0.62–1.47 0.814 1.07 0.67–1.71 0.751
Steroid use 1.02 0.64–1.59 0.971 1.20 0.715–2.02 0.486
Admission to the hospital in the last year 2.40 0.83–6.87 0.159 2.57 0.72–9.18 0.145
Prefecture of Thessaloniki** 0.42 0.19–0.9 0.026 0.33 0.13–0.83 0.019
Prefecture of Evia(Halkida)** 1.11 0.66–0.87 0.685 0.91 0.43–1.94 0.825
Prefecture of Evros(Alexandroupolis)** 0.57 0.17–1.92 0.458 0.52 0.14–1.91 0.328
Prefecture of Epirus(Ioannina)** 0.49 0.11–2.13 0.564 0.20 0.01–1.30 0.635
Prefecture of Peloponnese** 0.98 0.53–1.81 1.000 1.09 0.52–2.29 0.803
Prefecture of Herakleion, Crete** 2.17 1.11–4.22 0.036 1.69 0.70–4.07 0.238
Erythromycin resistance       
Male gender 1.06 0.78–1.45 0.693 1.00 0.72–1.39 0.958
Age <3 years old 0.82 0.72–0.94 0.005 0.866 0.74–1.00 0.061
Sampling period* 0.46 0.33–0.63 < 0.001 0.52 0.37–0.73 < 0.001
Antibiotic use in the last month 1.43 1.04–1.96 0.025 1.92 1.35–2.72 < 0.001
Antibiotic use in the last trimester 1.19 0.87–1.63 0.266 1.30 0.94–1.80 0.112
History of acute otitis media episodes 1.39 1.02–1.90 0.034 1.13 0.78–1.64 0.508
History of respiratory tract infections 0.78 0.50–1.20 0.262 0.57 0.34–0.95 0.031
Other sibling(s) in the household <8 years old 0.93 0.68–1.28 0.686 0.89 0.63–1.26 0.534
Steroid use 1.33 0.96–1.84 0.081 1.20 0.81–1.77 0.356
Admission to the hospital in the last year 0.77 0.27–2.19 0.801 0.87 0.23–3.23 0.846
Prefecture of Thessaloniki** 1.06 0.70–1.61 0.752 0.99 0.56–1.75 0.993
Prefecture of Evia(Halkida)** 1.29 0.87–1.89 0.194 1.03 0.59–1.78 0.913
Prefecture of Evros(Alexandroupolis)** 0.42 0.17–1.03 0.061 0.50 0.19–1.32 0.165
Prefecture of Epirus(Ioannina)** 1.28 0.57–2.86 0.531 1.39 0.51–3.80 0.516
Prefecture of Peloponnese** 0.36 0.36–0.97 0.017 0.41 0.21–0.81 0.010
Prefecture of Herakleion, Crete** 4.22 2.24–7.98 < 0.001 3.26 1.55–6.84 0.002
Penicillin nonsusceptibility       
Male gender 0.89 0.79–1.47 0.638 0.89 0.65–1.23 0.499
Age <3 years old 0.78 0.68–0.89 < 0.001 0.82 0.71–0.96 0.013
Sampling period* 0.5 0.37–0.69 < 0.001 0.58 0.42–0.82 0.002
Antibiotic use in the last month 1.71 1.23–2.38 0.001 1.66 1.17–2.35 0.004
Antibiotic use in the last trimester 1.36 1.00–1.84 0.045 1.48 1.07–2.04 0.017
History of acute otitis media episodes 1.04 0.77–1.41 0.815 0.82 0.56–1.18 0.297
History of respiratory tract infections 1.06 0.68–1.65 0.825 1.13 0.68–1.89 0.624
Other sibling(s) in the household <8 years old 0.84 0.61–1.28 0.686 0.85 0.61–1.20 0.379
Steroid use 1.30 0.95–1.79 0.102 1.36 0.93–2.01 0.108
Admission to the hospital in the last year 1.52 0.59–3.91 0.453 1.97 0.61–6.32 0.251
Prefecture of Thessaloniki** 0.89 0.59–1.35 0.678 0.48 0.27–0.86 0.014
Prefecture of Evia(Halkida)** 1.12 0.76–1.64 0.554 0.73 0.42–1.26 0.265
Prefecture of Evros(Alexandroupolis)** 0.21 0.074–0.63 0.005 0.19 0.06–0.57 0.003
Prefecture of Epirus(Ioannina)** 0.43 0.16–1.16 0.098 0.17 0.03–0.81 0.026
Prefecture of Peloponnese** 0.69 0.43–1.10 0.143 0.70 0.40–1.22 0.215
Prefecture of Herakleion, Crete** 1.91 1.05–3.48 0.003 1.39 0.68–2.62 0.357
Erythromycin nonsusceptibility       
Male gender 1.08 0.79–1.47 0.638 1.02 0.74–1.41 0.881
Age <3 years old 0.8 0.7–0.92 0.002 0.84 0.72–0.97 0.023
Sampling period* 0.46 0.34–0.64 < 0.001 0.53 0.37–0.74 < 0.001
Antibiotic use in the last month 1.81 1.3–2.52 < 0.001 1.86 1.31–2.64 < 0.001
Antibiotic use in the last trimester 1.44 1.05–1.97 0.021 1.32 0.95–1.82 0.091
History of acute otitis media episodes 1.44 1.06–1.96 0.019 1.16 0.80–1.67 0.426
History of respiratory tract infections 0.77 0.50–1.19 0.263 0.65 0.34–0.94 0.028
Other sibling(s) in the household <8 years old 0.97 0.71–1.33 0.873 0.92 0.65–1.30 0.662
Steroid use 1.26 0.91–1.73 0.610 1.13 0.77–1.67 0.519
Admission to the hospital in the last year 0.74 0.26–2.11 0.802 0.86 0.23–3.17 0.820
Prefecture of Thessaloniki** 1.02 0.67–1.54 0.916 0.92 0.52–1.62 0.794
Prefecture of Evia(Halkida)** 1.33 0.90–1.95 0.162 1.12 0.65–1.94 0.671
Prefecture of Evros(Alexandroupolis)** 0.40 0.16–0.99 0.042 0.46 0.17–1.21 0.120
Prefecture of Epirus(Ioannina)** 1.45 0.65–3.22 0.399 1.59 0.60–4.25 0.347
Prefecture of Peloponnese** 0.34 0.12–0.92 0.002 0.38 0.2–0.75 0.005
Prefecture of Herakleion, Crete** 4.02 2.13–7.58 < 0.001 3.39 1.61–7.17 0.005
  1. * reference category for period of sampling: February
  2. ** reference category for prefecture of sampling: Athens, prefecture of Attika