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Table 2 Risk factors for carriage of pneumococcal strain.

From: Risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: data from a nation-wide surveillance study in Greece

  Odds Ratio (OR) P 95% CI
Gender (boys) 1.019 0.827 0.855–1.211
Age (<3 years old) 0.886 0.001 0.824–0.953
Private vs. public daycare centre 0.862 0.128 0.712–1.043
Antibiotic consumption    
In the last month 0.866 0.139 0.717–1.040
In the last trimester 1.262 0.009 1.060–1.501
Siblings <8 ys in the family (yes or no) 1.036 0.535 0.926–1.159
History of respiratory tract infections 0.745 0.024 0.577–0.962
History of acute otitis media episodes 1.098 0.288 0.923–1.306
Steroid use 1.074 0.525 0.861–1.340
History of hospital admission 0.751 0.296 0.439–1.285
Parents health-care workers 1.176 0.210 0.912–1.517