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Table 1 Distribution of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations by selected demographic, clinical and virological characteristics of 255 newly diagnosed patients

From: Characterization of the patterns of drug-resistance mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected patients naïve to the antiretroviral drugs

Characteristics All patients n = 255 Patients with at least one drug resistance mutation (NRTI, NNRTI, PI)d n = 15 Patients with wild type virus n = 240 P-value e OR (95% CI)f
Italian a N (%) 188 (75.5) 14 (93.3) 174 (74.3) 0.13 4.8 (0.6–37.5)
Male a N (%) 193 (77.5) 14 (93.3) 179 (76.5) 0.13 4.8 (0.6–37.5)
Median age (years) (IQR) a 37 (31–43) 38 (34–46) 37 (30–43) 0.35  
Risk exposure N (%)      
   Heterosexual 108 (47.6) 2 (13.3) 106 (50.0) 0.01 0.15 (0.03–0.70)
   Homosexual 110 (48.6) 13 (86.7) 97 (45.8) 0.008 7.7 (1.7–35.0)
   Intravenous drug use 9 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 9 (4.2) 1.00 0.0 (0.0–6.1)
   Unknown, no. 28 0 28   
Viral Load, Median (IQR), (log copies/ml) 4.9 (4.3–5.4) 4.5 (4.3–5.2) 4.9 (4.3–5.4) 0.40  
CD4+ count, Median (IQR), cell/mm3 372 (171–517) 336 (132–450) 385 (194–527) 0.50  
Co-infection N (%)      
   HBV 33 (13.3) 0 (0.0) 33 (13.7) 0.23 0.0 (0.0–1.6)
   HCV 26 (10.4) 0 (0.0) 26 (10.8) 0.38 0.0 (0.0–2.2)
HIV-1 subtypes      
   Subtype B 213 (83.5) 15 (100) 198 (82.5) 0.99 inf (2.2-inf)
   Other Subtypes 42 (16.5) 0 (0.0) 42 (17.5) 0.99 0.0 (0.0–1.2)
Infectious status      
Long-standing Infection, > 6 months b 197 (77.2) 13 (86.7) 184 (76.7) 0.38 2.0 (0.4–9.0)
   Recent Infection, ≤ 6 months c 58 (22.7) 2 (13.3) 56 (23.3) 0.38 0.50 (0.11–2.3)
  1. a Among 255 patients, epidemiological information was available for 249 patients. The 6 patients without epidemiological information are included in the group of 240 patients carried wild type virus. Thus, the percentages were calculated on 249 patients in the second column and on 234 patients on the forth column.
  2. b Long-standing infection was estimated by a ≥ 0.80 avidity index.
  3. c Recent infection was estimated by a < 0.80 avidity index.
  4. d Mutations that have been associated with transmitted drug resistance (Shafer et al., 2007) are taking into account.
  5. e For quantitative measurements, data sets with non-normal distributions were compared non-parametrically using Mann-Whitney U test. Categorical data were analyzed by using a chi-square test accomplished by a logistic regression analysis.
  6. f CI, confidence interval, odds ratio (OR) are calculated with a logistic regression analysis