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Table 5 Characteristics of patients receiving adequate or inadequate adjusted antibiotic treatment (univariate analysis)

From: Empirical use of antibiotics and adjustment of empirical antibiotic therapies in a university hospital: a prospective observational study

Characteristic Patients (n) receiving adequate adjusted antibiotic treatment Patients (n) receiving inadequate adjusted antibiotic treatment p-value OR (95% CI) for adequate therapy
Number of patients 121 (72.5%) 46 (27.5%)   
Women 54 (70.1%) 23 (29.9%) 0.534 0.81 (0.41–1.59)
Age     
   Median age and range (years) 65 [21–97] 70 [19–95] 0.115*  
   < 40 22 (78.6%) 6 (21.4%) 0.427 1.48 (0.56–3.93)
   41 – 60 29 (80.6%) 7 (19.4%) 0.219 1.76 (0.71–4.35)
   > 60 70 (68.0%) 33 (32.0%) 0.099 0.54 (0.26–1.13)
Ward:     
   Medicine/Geriatrics 85 (72.0%) 33 (28.0%) 0.472 0.77 (0.38–1.56)
   Surgery 36 (73.5%) 13 (26.5%) 0.955 0.98 (0.47–2.06)
   Medical and surgical intensive care 13 (86.7%) 2 (13.3%) 0.360† 2.45 (0.53–11.28)
   Neurology 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) N/A N/A
Died in hospital 10 (90.9%) 1 (9.1%) 0.293† 4.05 (0.50–32.60)
Reason for switch:     
   Switch due to bacterial lab results 58 (89.2%) 7 (10.7%) < 0.001 5.13 (2.13–12.37)
   Switch due to other reason 43 (64.2%) 24 (35.8%) 0.050 0.51 (0.25–1.01)
Charlson Index:     
   Charlson index total 0 26 (76.5%) 8 (23.5%) 0.557 1.30 (0.54–3.13)
   Charlson index total 1 – 5 84 (71.8%) 33 (28.2%) 0.770 0.89 (0.42–1.89)
   Charlson index total > 5 11 (68.8%) 5 (31.2%) 0.771† 0.82 (0.27–2.50)
McCabe index     
   Not fatal 97 (74.0%) 34 (26.0%) 0.380 1.43 (0.64–3.16)
   Fatal (< 5 years) 18 (75.0%) 6 (25.0%) 0.763 1.17 (0.43–3.15)
   Fatal (< 6 months) 6 (50.0%) 6 (50.0%) 0.055† 0.35 (0.11–1.14)
Number of microbiological exams performed:     
   None 13 (76.5%) 4 (23.5%) 0.783† 1.26 (0.39–4.10)
   One or more 108 (72%) 42 (28%) 0.783† 0.79 (0.24–2.57)
Infectious diseases consultants involved:     
   Within 24 hours 22 (88.0%) 3 (12.0%) 0.059 3.19 (0.91–11.21)
   Were involved 52 (82.5%) 11 (17.5%) 0.023 2.40 (1.11–5.16)
Hepatic failure reported 1 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1.000† N/A
Renal failure reported 34 (70.8%) 14 (29.2%) 0.766 0.89 (0.43–1.88)
Received broad-spectrum antibiotics or vancomycin 37 (84.1%) 7 (15.9%) 0.520 1.28 (0.60–2.72)
Allergy to antibiotics reported 9 (64.3%) 5 (35.7%) 0.534† 0.66 (0.21–2.08)
Diagnoses     
   Biliary tract infections 5 (83.3%) 1 (16.7%) 1.000† 1.94 (0.22–17.06)
   Bone and joint infections 10 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.063† N/A
   CNS infections 3 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.562† N/A
   Ear, nose and throat infections 0 (0.00%) 1 (100%) 0.275† N/A
   Gastrointestinal infections 17 (63.0%) 10 (37.0%) 0.228 0.59 (0.25–1.40)
   Urinary tract infections, postatitis, epididimytis 21 (67.7%) 10 (32.3%) 0.52 0.76 (0.33–1.76)
   Neutropenic fever 6 (85.7%) 1 (14.3%) 0.675† 2.35 (0.28–20.05)
   Respiratory tract infections 34 (60.7%) 22 (39.3%) 0.016 0.43 (0.21–0.86)
   Sepsis 12 (92.3%) 1 (7.7%) 0.116† 4.95 (0.63–39.24)
   Skin and soft tissue infections 10 (71.4%) 4 (28.6%) 1.000† 0.95 (0.28–3.18)
   Suspected systemic infections without identified focus 5 (71.4%) 2 (28.6%) 1.000† 0.95 (0.18–5.07)
   Other 8 (88.9%) 1 (11.1%) 0.447† 3.19 (0.39–26.21)
  1. * Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test
  2. † Fisher's Exact test