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Table 4 Characteristics of patients receiving adequate or inadequate empirical antibiotic treatment (univariate analysis).

From: Empirical use of antibiotics and adjustment of empirical antibiotic therapies in a university hospital: a prospective observational study

Characteristic Patients (n) receiving adequate empirical antibiotic treatment Patients (n) receiving inadequate empirical antibiotic treatment p-value OR (95% CI) for adequate therapy
Number of patients 418 (77.6%) 121 (22.4%)   
Women 170 (70.2%) 72 (29.8%) < 0.001 0.47 (0.31–0.70)
Age     
   Median age and range (years) 67 [18–100] 72 [17–97] 0.038*  
   < 40 years 74 (77.1%) 22 (22.9%) 0.904 0.97 (0.57–1.64)
   41 – 60 yr. 91 (87.5%) 13 (12.5%) 0.007 2.31 (1.12–4.30)
   > 60 years 253 (74.6%) 86 (25.4%) 0.034 0.62 (0.40–0.97)
Ward:     
   Medicine/Geriatrics 281 (78.3%) 78 (21.7%) 0.399 1.19 (0.80–1.76)
   Surgery 135 (78.9%) 36 (21.1%) 0.733 1.09 (0.70–1.65)
   Medical and surgical intensive care 25 (71.4%) 10 (28.6%) 0.408 0.73 (0.34–1.55)
   Neurology 1 (25.0%) 3 (75.0%) 0.040† 0.10 (0.01–0.94)
Died in hospital 25 (80.6%) 6 (19.4%) 0.671 1.22 (0.49–3.04)
Charlson index:     
   Charlson index total 0 110 (81.5%) 25 (18.5%) 0.206 1.37 (0.84–2.24)
   Charlson index total 1 – 5 264 (75.9%) 84 (24.1%) 0.205 0.76 (0.49–1.17)
   Charlson index total > 5 44 (78.6%) 12 (21.4%) 0.845 1.07 (0.55–2.10)
McCabe index:     
   Not fatal 343 (77.4%) 100 (22.6%) 0.882 0.96 (0.56–1.64)
   Fatal (< 5 years) 52 (81.3%) 12 (18.8%) 0.450 1.29 (0.67–2.51)
   Fatal (< 6 months) 23 (71.9%) 9 (28.1%) 0.428 0.73 (0.33–1.61)
Number of microbiological exams performed:     
   None 78 (77.2%) 23 (22.8%) 0.931 0.98 (0.58–1.64)
   One or more 340 (77.6%) 98 (22.4%) 0.931 1.02 (0.61–1.71)
Infectious diseases consultants involved:     
   Within 24 hours 23 (62.2%) 14 (37.8%) 0.020 0.45 (0.22–0.89)
   Were involved 58 (69.0%) 26 (31.0%) 0.042 0.59 (0.35–0.99)
Therapy adjusted 128 (76.2%) 40 (23.8%) 0.611 0.89 (0.58–1.38)
Hepatic failure reported 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%) 0.399† 0.29 (0.02–4.64)
Renal failure reported 100 (69.0%) 45 (31.0%) 0.004 0.53 (0.35–0.82)
Received broad-spectrum antibiotics or vancomycin 62 (65.3%) 33 (34.7%) 0.002 0.46 (0.29–0.75)
Allergy to antibiotics reported 29 (70.1%) 12 (29.9%) 0.276 0.68 (0.33–1.37)
Diagnoses     
   Biliary tract infections 19 (76.0%) 6 (24%) 0.849 0.91 (0.36–2.34)
   Bone and joint infections 12 (70.6%) 5 (29.4%) 0.553† 0.69 (0.24–1.99)
   Central nervous system infections 9 (81.8%) 2 (18.1%) 1.000† 1.31 (0.28–6.14)
   Ear, nose and throat infections 11 (73.3%) 4 (26.7%) 0.753† 0.79 (0.25–2.53)
   Gastrointestinal infections 59 (73.8%) 21 (26.3%) 0.377 0.78 (0.45–1.35)
   Neutropenic fever 10 (100%) 0 (0.00%) 0.127† N/A
   No infectious disease 1 (25.0%) 3 (75.0%) 0.037† 0.09 (0.01–0.92)
   Respiratory tract infections 139 (82.2%) 30 (17.8%) 0.077 1.51 (0.95–2.39)
   Sepsis 19 (86.4%) 3 (13.6%) 0.436† 1.87 (0.55–6.44)
   Skin and soft tissue infections 48 (81.4%) 11 (18.6%) 0.458 1.30 (0.65–2.58)
   Suspected systemic infections without identified focus 19 (76.0%) 6 (24.0%) 0.849 0.91 (0.36–2.34)
   Urinary tract infections, prostatitis, epididimytis 83 (73.5%) 30 (26.6%) 0.240 0.75 (0.47–1.21)
   Other 11 (68.8%) 5 (31.3%) 0.371† 1.30 (0.21–1.84)
SIRS present 199 (77.7%) 57 (22.3%) 0.923 1.02 (0.68–1.53)
  1. Note: The adequacy of treatment was compared against the individual variables with the Chi-squared test with odds ratio production
  2. * Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test
  3. † Fisher's Exact test