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Table 4 Factors associated with anticipated preventive behaviors protecting oneself if 2 to 3 new human-to-human H5N1 cases were to be reported in Hong Kong

From: Anticipated and current preventive behaviors in response to an anticipated human-to-human H5N1 epidemic in the Hong Kong Chinese general population

  Face mask use in public venues Increased frequency of handwashing Avoidance of eating poultry
  Row% ORu ORm Row% ORu ORm Row% ORu ORm
Background characteristics          
Age groups          
   18 – 34 65.1 1.00 1.00 81.7 1.00 ns 55.9 1.00 ns
   35 – 60 78.9 2.00** 2.38*** 89.6 1.93*   68.5 1.71**  
Marital status          
   Never married 64.9 1.00 ns 83.0 1.00 ns 55.3 1.00 1.00
   Ever married 79.0 2.04**   88.9 1.64 ~   68.9 1.79** 2.11***
Employment status          
   Not employed full-time 65.8 1.00 1.00 86.4 ns --- 61.3 ns ---
   Employed full-time 78.9 1.95** 2.07** 86.8    65.5   
Perceived modes of transmission of human-to-human H5N1:          
Respiratory droplets          
   No/not certain 62.5 1.00 ns 77.8 1.00 ns 61.1 ns ---
   Yes 75.6 1.86*   88.2 2.13*   64.3   
Bodily contact          
   No/not certain 70.0 1.00 ns 86.2 ns --- 61.2 ns ---
   Yes 77.8 1.50*   87.2    66.7   
Objects contaminated with the virus          
   No/not certain 72.1 ns --- 82.7 1.00 ns 62.4 ns ---
   Yes 74.8    89.2 1.73*   64.7   
Eating well-cooked poultry          
   No/not certain 73.8 ns --- 86.2 ns --- 60.3 1.00 1.00
   Yes 73.6    88.0    74.4 1.91** 1.92**
No. of items with "yes" responses in the above 4 items          
   0 – 2 68.9 1.00 ns 83.8 1.00 ns 60.6 1.00 ns
   3 – 4 81.1 1.94**   91.0 1.97*   68.7 1.42 ~  
Perceived impacts of human-to-human H5N1          
Fatality rate          
   Same as SARS/better than SARS/not certain 67.1 1.00 1.00 83.1 1.00 1.00 60.8 1.00 ns
   Worse than SARS 83.7 2.51*** 1.86* 92.1 2.37** 1.94* 68.3 1.39 ~  
Efficacy of treatment          
   Same as SARS/better than SARS/not certain 71.5 1.00 ns 85.6 1.00 ns 62.8 ns ---
   Worse than SARS 89.2 3.31**   93.8 2.56 ~   70.8   
Perceived chance to have a major human-to-human H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong          
   Low/very low chance/not certain 68.5 1.00 1.00 85.2 ns --- 59.9 1.00 1.00
   High/very high chance 84.3 2.47*** 2.23** 89.8    71.7 1.69* 1.58*
Worry about oneself/family members contracting the virus a          
   Unlikely/very unlikely/not certain 63.9 1.00 1.00 81.5 1.00 1.00 57.5 1.00 ns
   Likely/very likely 82.2 2.61*** 2.11** 91.1 2.32** 2.20** 69.3 1.67**  
No effective drugs currently available          
   Disagree/not certain 68.7 1.00 ns 83.5 1.00 ns 62.7 ns ---
   Agree 78.7 1.69*   89.8 1.73*   65.0   
Perceived susceptibility to H5N1 infection          
Oneself or one's family          
   Unlikely/very unlikely/not certain 69.3 1.00 ns 86.7 ns --- 62.5 ns ---
   Likely/very likely 85.9 2.71***   86.7    67.4   
Older people          
   Unlikely/very unlikely/not certain 64.0 ns --- 88.0 ns --- 56.0 ns ---
   Likely/very likely 74.8    86.5    64.7   
Adults          
   Unlikely/very unlikely/not certain 68.6 1.00 ns 84.3 ns --- 63.6 ns ---
   Likely/very likely 79.3 1.76**   89.3    64.0   
Children          
   Unlikely/very unlikely/not certain 61.6 1.00 ns 82.2 ns --- 67.1 ns ---
   Likely/very likely 75.8 1.95*   87.4    63.3   
Health care workers          
   Unlikely/very unlikely/not certain 63.8 1.00 ns 84.8 ns --- 64.8 ns ---
   Likely/very likely 76.4 1.83*   87.2    63.6   
Food sellers          
   Unlikely/very unlikely/not certain 68.9 ns --- 81.1 ns --- 45.9 1.00 1.00
   Likely/very likely 74.6    87.6    66.9 2.38** 2.63***
Food dealers          
   Unlikely/very unlikely/not certain 68.6 1.00 ns 86.0 ns --- 60.5 ns ---
   Likely/very likely 76.4 1.48 ~   87.0    65.6   
The general public          
   Unlikely/very unlikely/not certain 68.9 1.00 ns 86.2 ns --- 61.7 ns ---
   Likely/very likely 83.4 2.28**   87.6    68.0   
No. of items with "likely/very likely" responses in the above 8 items          
   0 – 6 69.0 1.00 1.00 86.2 ns --- 62.3 ns ---
   7 – 8 88.1 3.33*** 2.54** 88.1    68.3   
Perceived efficacy of prevention measures          
Quarantine of the infected people          
   Low/very low/not certain 70.4 ns --- 88.9 ns --- 66.7 ns ---
   High/very high 73.9    86.6    63.7   
Face mask use in public venues          
   Low/very low/not certain 37.5 1.00 1.00 68.8 1.00 1.00 47.9 1.00 1.00
   High/very high 77.6 5.77*** 2.78* 88.6 3.52*** 2.21* 65.5 2.06* 1.87*
Frequent handwashing          
   Low/very low/not certain 68.8 ns --- 50.0 1.00 1.00 71.9 ns ---
   High/very high 74.1    89.2 8.24*** 7.76*** 63.3   
Home disinfection          
   Low/very low/not certain 63.3 1.00 ns 75.5 1.00 ns 63.3 ns ---
   High/very high 74.9 1.73 ~   87.9 2.35*   63.9   
Mass extermination of poultry          
   Low/very low/not certain 66.9 1.00 ns 78.9 1.00 1.00 56.3 1.00 ns
   High/very high 76.5 1.61*   89.8 2.35** 2.12* 66.8 1.56*  
No. of items with "high/very high chance" responses in the above 5 items          
   0 – 3 46.8 1.00 1.00 69.4 1.00 ns 61.3 ns ---
   4 – 5 77.6 3.93*** 2.75** 89.1 3.62***   64.2   
  1. a Would worry that it is likely/very likely for oneself or one's family members to contract H5N1 (if 2–3 new cases were to be reported in Hong Kong. Gender and education level were not associated with any of the 3 dependent variables and were hence not tabulated.
  2. ORU = Univariate odds ratio.
  3. ORm = Odds ratios obtained from multivariate stepwise logistic regression using univariately significant (including marginally significant) variables as candidate variables.
  4. ~ 0.5 < p < 0.1; *p < 0.5; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
  5. ns = not significant.
  6. --- univariately non-significant and was not considered in the multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis.