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Table 3 Perceptions related human-to-human H5N1 infection

From: Anticipated and current preventive behaviors in response to an anticipated human-to-human H5N1 epidemic in the Hong Kong Chinese general population

  Gender Age group Education level All
  Male Female   18 – 34 35 – 60   ≤Matriculated ≥University   
  Col% Col% OR Col% Col% OR Col% Col% OR Col%
Perceived modes of transmission of human-to-human H5N1 (%Yes)           
   Respiratory droplets 85.0 86.2 ns 84.9 86.1 ns 87.2 82.7 ns 85.7
   Bodily contact 50.4 46.5 ns 44.6 50.5 ns 47.1 50.3 ns 48.3
   Objects contaminated with the virus 61.1 60.6 ns 63.4 59.3 ns 61.7 59.0 ns 60.8
   Eating well-cooked poultry 22.2 27.1 ns 27.4 23.3 ns 24.0 26.6 ns 24.9
No. of items with "yes" responses in the above 4 items           
   0 – 2 60.3 59.9 ns 60.2 59.9 ns 59.6 61.3 ns 60.0
   3 – 4 39.7 40.1   39.8 40.1   40.4 38.7   40.0
Perceived impacts of human-to-human H5N1           
   % Fatality rate worse than that of SARS 43.6 37.2 ns 36.0 42.6 ns 39.8 41.0 ns 40.2
   % Efficacy of treatments worse than that of SARS 16.2 10.0 0.58* 12.4 13.2 ns 13.4 12.1 ns 12.9
   % Perceived high/very high chance to have a major human-to-human H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong 30.8 34.9   36.0 31.2 ns 33.7 31.2 ns 33.0
   % Worry about oneself/family members contracting the virusa 47.4 59.1 1.60** 53.8 53.6 ns 54.1 53.2 ns 53.7
   % Perceiving no effective drugs currently available 50.4 50.6 ns 54.8 47.9 ns 49.2 53.2 ns 50.5
Perceived susceptibility to H5N1 infection (% Likely/very likely)           
   Oneself or one's family members 27.4 26.4 ns 30.1 24.9 ns 22.2 35.8 1.96** 26.8
   Older people 88.9 91.1 ns 93.5 88.0 0.51* 90.0 90.8 ns 90.1
   Adults 49.6 46.8 ns 45.7 49.5 ns 44.7 54.9 1.51* 48.1
   Children 84.6 86.2 ns 88.2 83.9 ns 85.7 85.5 ns 85.5
   Health care workers 76.9 81.0 ns 83.9 76.3 0.62* 76.6 83.8 ns 79.1
   Food sellers 82.9 87.4 ns 94.1 80.1 0.25*** 80.9 94.2 3.86*** 85.3
   Food handlers 63.7 67.7 ns 74.2 60.9 0.54** 63.2 71.1 ns 65.8
   The general public 35.9 31.6 ns 34.4 33.1 ns 30.4 39.9 1.52* 33.6
No. of items with "likely/very likely" responses in the above 8 items           
   0 – 6 72.2 77.3 ns 71.5 77.0 ns 79.3 66.5 1.94** 75.0
   7 – 8 27.8 22.7   28.5 23.0   20.7 33.5   25.0
Perceived efficacy of prevention measures (% High/very high)           
   Quarantine of the infected people 96.6 92.9 ns 94.1 95.0 ns 93.6 96.5 ns 94.6
   Face mask use in public venues 90.2 90.7 ns 88.2 91.8 ns 91.2 89.6 ns 90.5
   Frequent handwashing 93.2 94.1 ns 89.2 96.2 3.06** 94.2 93.1 ns 93.6
   Home disinfections 90.2 90.3 ns 93.5 88.3 ns 90.6 90.2 ns 90.3
   Mass extermination of poultry 73.9 69.9 ns 72.6 71.3 ns 71.4 72.8 ns 71.8
No. of items with "high/very high" responses in the above 5 items           
   0 – 3 11.1 13.4 ns 14.0 11.4 ns 11.2 13.9 ns 12.3
   4 28.6 32.0   29.6 30.9   31.0 29.5   30.4
   5 60.3 54.6   56.5 57.7   57.8 56.6   57.3
  1. a Would worry that it is likely/very likely for oneself or one's family members to contract H5N1 (if 2–3 new cases were to be reported in Hong Kong.
  2. OR = Univariate odds ratio. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001. ns = not significant.