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Table 1 Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the children with acute diarrhoea (n = 243)

From: Acute childhood diarrhoea in northern Ghana: epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics   
Age mean (range) [years] 0.8 (0 to 11)
Female/male [%] 50.6/49.4
Nutritional status   
Weight-for-age z-score < -2 [%] 21.8
Weight-for height z-score < -2 [%] 19.4
Number of household members   
Adults and children mean (range) 5–7 (2–4 to > 22)
Children under 12 years mean (range) 1–4 (1–4 to > 16)
Most frequently used water source   
Public tap [%] 42.7
Pond, river or stream [%] 34.0
Protected dug well or protected spring [%] 10.4
Most frequently used toilet facility   
Pipe ventilated covered latrine [%] 46.5
Bush or field [%] 32.4
Uncovered latrine [%] 12.4
Symptoms reported by guardian   
Duration of diarrhoea mean (range) [hours] 72 (6 to 168)
Stool frequency in the last 24 h mean (range) 5.5 (3 to 15)
Fever [%] 83.1
Abdominal pain [%] 70.4
Vomiting [%] 66.7
Weakness [%] 56.0
Cough [%] 45.7
Restlessness [%] 25.1
Increased Thirst [%] 22.6
Other symptoms [%] 3.7
Drug intake in the last 48 h   
Paracetamol [%] 28.4
Chloroquine [%] 7.8
Other drugs [%] 2.9
Symptoms and signs at examination   
Fever [%] 54.3
Weakness [%] 28.0
Sunken eyes [%] 16.0
Restlessness [%] 7.4
Crepitation (auscultation of lung) [%] 6.6
Other symptoms and signs [%] 10.8
Concomitant diseases   
Malaria [%] 14.8
Lower respiratory tract infection [%] 7.0
Skin infection [%] 5.8
Other concomitant diseases [%] 5.3
Aspect of stool   
Watery [%] 75.3
Loose [%] 20.2
Semi-formed [%] 2.5
Formed [%] 2.1
Mucus [%] 58.4
Blood tests   
Malaria parasitaemia [%] 36.2
White blood cell count mean ± SD [× 103/μL] 12.0 ± 5.0
Haemoglobin concentration mean ± SD [g/dL] 9.2 ± 1.8