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Table 1 Clinical features at presentation, in a study of 60 patients with blood culture-proven typhoid fever

From: Clinical outcomes in typhoid fever: adverse impact of infection with nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhi

Characteristic Frequency, overall (n = 60) NARST (n = 47) NASST (n = 13) MDR-ST (n = 22) NonMDR-ST (n = 38)
Age, years * 15 ± 9 13 ± 9 23 ± 8 14 ± 9 16 ± 10
Gender (male/female) 40/20 32/15 8/5 15/7 25/13
Fever, days 8 (4.8–14) 10 (7–15) 4 (3–6) 9 (7–14.3) 7 (3.8–14)
Chills 39 (65) 30 (64) 9 (69) 15 (68) 24 (63)
Anorexia 58 (97) 46 (98) 12 (92) 22 (100) 36 (95)
Abdominal pain 23 (38) 18 (38) 5 (38) 10 (45) 13 (34)
Vomiting 33 (55) 27 (57) 6 (46) 14 (64) 19 (50)
Diarrhoea 27 (45) 22 (47) 5 (38) 11 (50) 16 (42)
Constipation 7 (12) 6 (13) 1 (8) 2 (9) 5 (13)
Intestinal bleeding 1 (2) 1 (2) -- -- 1 (3)
Headache 24 (40) 19 (40) 5 (38) 6 (27) 18 (47)
Altered sensorium 3 (5) 3 (6) -- 2 (9) 1 (3)
Cough 21 (35) 18 (38) 3 (23) 10 (45) 11 (29)
Relative bradycardia 6 (10) 4 (9) 2 (15) 1 (5) 5 (13)
Jaundice 3 (5) 3 (6) -- -- 3 (8)
Hepatomegaly § 29 (49) 27 (57) 2 (15) 11 (50) 18 (47)
Splenomegaly § 30 (51) 25 (53) 5 (38) 14 (64) 16 (42)
  1. NARST = nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhi
  2. NASST = nalidixic acid-sensitive Salmonella typhi
  3. MDR-ST = multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi
  4. -- no patients in this category
  5. All data presented as number (%) of patients, except when indicated
  6. * data presented as mean ± SD
  7. P-value < 0.05 for NARST vs. NASST; compared by independent t test or Mann-Whitney U test
  8. duration of fever at presentation; presented as median (IQR)
  9. § one patient with underlying chronic myeloid leukaemia was not included
  10. P-value < 0.05 for NARST vs. NASST; compared by Fisher's exact test