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Table 1 Factors associated with high IFN-γ responses to mycobacterial antigens among mothers and their infants.

From: A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation [ISRCTN32849447]

Maternal variables in pregnancy Mothers during pregnancy n = 90 Infants at one year of age n = 57
  Proportion (%) with "high IFN-γ" (> mediana) P value Proportion (%) with "high IFN-γ" (> mediana) P value
Helminths     
   none 12/19 (63%)   4/17 (24%)  
   hookworm 11/36 (31%) 0.025 16/20 (80%) 0.001
   S. mansoni 12/22 (55%) 0.75 7/12 (58%) 0.12
HIV infection     
   Negative 39/78 (50%)   26/49 (53%)  
   positive 5/12 (42%) 0.76 3/8 (38%) 0.47
Malaria parasitaemia     
   Negative 41/77 (53%)   25/49 (51%)  
   Positive 3/13 (23%) 0.07 4/8 (50%) 1.00
Age     
   < 25 years 28/61 (46%)   19/37 (51%)  
   25 or older 16/29 (55%) 0.50 10/20 (50%) 1.00
Education (1 mv)     
   none/ primary 29/55 (53%)   19/34 (56%)  
   secondary/ tertiary 15/34 (44%) 0.52 10/23 (43%) 0.42
BCG scar (3 mv)     
   absent 11/28 (39%)   10/14 (71%)  
   present 32/59 (54%) 0.25 18/41 (44%) 0.12
  1. a The median level of IFN-γ production in response to CFP for mothers was 69 pg/ml; for infants 206 pg/ml. mv: missing values