Effects of maternal hookworm and albendazole treatment on responses mycobacterial antigens in mothers at delivery and their one-year-old infants. Effects of maternal hookworm, and maternal treatment with albendazole during pregnancy, on IFN-γ responses to culture filtrate proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in (a) mothers at delivery and (b) their one-year-old infants, who received BCG immunisation at birth. IFN-γ responses shown are net production: low-level cytokine production in un-stimulated wells was subtracted from concentrations produced in response to stimulation to give a measure of antigen-specific response. "No worms": no helminths detected in stool or blood sample from mother either in pregnancy or at delivery. "Hk, plac": mother had hookworm in pregnancy and received placebo. "Hk, alb": mother had hookworm in pregnancy and received albendazole. Boxes show median value, 25th and 75th centiles; whiskers show lower and upper adjacent values and dots indicate outside values. P values <0.10 (Wilcoxon's rank sum test) are shown comparing a no worms vs hookworm, placebo; b hookworm, placebo vs albendazole; c no worms vs hookworm, whether placebo or albendazole.