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Comparison of plasma and salivary HIV loads determined via a coupling of the Abbott HIV detection system with the DNA Genotek OMNIgene™ DISCOVER (OM-505) kits

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Background

The DNA Genotek OMNIgene™ DISCOVER (OM-505) kits are designed to collect and store saliva at room temperature before the extraction and detection of DNA and RNA. Utilizing the OM-505 we determined the HIV salivary viral loads (SVL), which were compared with plasma viral loads (PVL).

Methods

SVL and PVL were determined on 40 HIV-positive ART naïve patients presenting at YRG CARE. Saliva was collected with the OM-505, incubated at 50°C for 1 hour. Prior to extraction 70 mL isopropanol was mixed with 800mL OM-505. From OM-505 and plasma, RNA was extracted automatically on the Abbott m2000sp. HIV loads were determined with the Abbott m2000rt system.

Results

A calibration curve produced by 10-fold dilutions of HIV virion in HIV negative saliva collected in the OM-505 was linear (R2=0.9951) from 57,273 to 621 HIV copies/mL. In clinical isolates, PVL averaged 431,865 HIV copies/mL (range: 62 to 7,604,620 HIV copies/mL) whilst SVL averaged 23,267 HIV copies/mL (range: 153 to 220,104 HIV copies/mL). SVL was not detected in 15 samples and could not be determined in 5 samples due to viscosity and cellular debris causing problems during extraction. In 12/17 patients SVL was lower than PVL.

Conclusion

HIV, if present, can be detected accurately in saliva down to 621 HIV copies/mL. SVL does not correlate with PVL and thus cannot be used to accurately determine HIV carriage, but in most cases HIV shedding is low or nonexistent.

Author information

Correspondence to David J Speicher.

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This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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Keywords

  • Public Health
  • Internal Medicine
  • Infectious Disease
  • Calibration Curve
  • Viral Load