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Table 3 Use of antimicrobials as treatment in infected patients

From: Infections, antibiotic treatment and mortality in patients admitted to ICUs in countries considered to have high levels of antibiotic resistance compared to those with low levels

  LowABR ICU patients HighABR ICU patients p-value
(n = 255) (n = 1187)
Antimicrobial, n (%)    
Cephalosporins (all) 84 (32.9) 206 (17.4) <0.001
Cefazolin 4 (1.6) 4 (0.3) 0.016
Cefuroxime 46 (18.0) 2 (0.2) <0.001
Ceftazidime 8 (3.1) 40 (3.4) 0.851
Cefepime/Cefpirome 1 (0.4) 24 (2.0) 0.070
Other cephalosporins 26 (10.2) 139 (11.7) 0.491
Penicillins (all) 84 (32.9) 400 (33.7) 0.816
Benzylpenicillin 16 (6.3) 3 (0.3) <0.001
Ampicillin 5 (2.0) 29 (2.4) 0.645
Amoxycillin + Clavulanic acid 16 (6.3) 71 (6.0) 0.858
Piperacillin + Tazobactam 27 (10.6) 273 (23.0) <0.001
Oxa-/Cloxa-/Flucloxacillin 14 (5.5) 16 (1.3) <0.001
Other penicillins 8 (3.1) 20 (1.7) 0.127
Other β-lactams (all) 44 (17.3) 381 (32.1) <0.001
Imipenem/meropenem 44 (17.3) 365 (30.7) <0.001
Aztreonam 0 (0.0) 13 (1.1) 0.093
Unspecified beta-lactams 0 (0.0) 7 (0.6) 0.219
Aminoglycosides (all) 17 (6.7) 202 (17.0) <0.001
Amikacin 0 (0.0) 114 (9.6) <0.001
Tobramycin 11 (4.3) 26 (2.2) 0.052
Other aminoglycosides 6 (2.4) 66 (5.6) <0.001
Quinolones (all) 38 (14.9) 242 (20.4) 0.045
Ciprofloxacin 31 (12.2) 128 (10.8) 0.525
Other quinolones 7 (2.7) 114 (9.7) <0.001
Glycopeptides (all) 30 (11.8) 272 (22.9) <0.001
Vancomycin 30 (11.8) 193 (16.3) 0.072
Other glycopeptides 0 (0.0) 81 (6.8) <0.001
Macrolides (all) 13 (5.1) 48 (4.0) 0.448
Erythromycin 6 (2.4) 4 (0.3) <0.001
Other macrolides 7 (2.7) 44 (3.7) 0.451
Other antibiotics (all) 55 (21.6) 321 (27.0) 0.071
Metronidazole 36 (14.1) 71 (6.0) <0.001
Cotrimoxazole 5 (2.0) 30 (2.5) 0.594
Oxazolidinone 0 (0.0) 128 (10.8) <0.001
Tigecycline 0 (0.0) 21 (1.8) 0.032
Unspecified 19 (7.5) 130 (11.0) 0.096
Antifungals (all) 52 (20.4) 209 (17.6) 0.295
Fluconazole 31 (12.2) 110 (9.3) 0.159
Amphotericin B 4 (1.6) 18 (1.5) 0.951
Amphotericin lipid complex 3 (1.2) 21 (1.8) 0.502
Caspofungin 12 (4.7) 40 (3.4) 0.299
Voriconazole 1 (0.4) 31 (2.6) 0.029
Other antifungals 1 (0.4) 2 (0.2) 0.477
Antivirals (all) 3 (1.2) 22 (1.9) 0.452