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Table 1 Characteristics of study population and participating units

From: Infections, antibiotic treatment and mortality in patients admitted to ICUs in countries considered to have high levels of antibiotic resistance compared to those with low levels

Characteristics   LowABR countries HighABR countries p-value
Of ICUs N = 54 N = 231  
Staffed ICU beds, n (%)    
<7 14 (25.9) 67 (29.0) 0.9
7-14 30 (55.6) 122 (52.8)
15+ 10 (18.5) 42 (18.2)  
Nurse:patient, n (%)    
>1:1 19 (35.2) 16 (6.9) <0.001
1:1-1:1.49 14 (25.9) 42 (18.2)
1:1.5-1:1.99 18 (33.3) 78 (33.8)
<1:2 3 (5.6) 95 (41.1)  
24-hr in-house intensivist 48 (88.9) 231 (100%) <0.001
Of patients N = 558 N = 2204  
Age, median (25-75 percentile) 65 (53-74) 65 (51-74) 0.574
SAPS II score, median (25-75 percentile) 31 (25-39) 34 (26-44) <0.001
SOFA score, median (25-75 percentile) 5 (3-8) 5 (3-8) 0.806
Length of stay in days in ICU prior to study day, median (25-75 percentile) 1 (0-6) 4 (0-14) <0.001
Infected 255 (45.7) 1187 (53.9) 0.001
Type of admission, n (%) Surgical, elective 203 (36.5) 455 (20.7) <0.001
Surgical, emergency 200 (36.0) 952 (43.2)
Medical 114 (20.5) 534 (24.3)
Trauma 39 (7.0) 261 (11.9)
Admission source, n (%) OR/recovery 205 (37.7) 472 (21.5) < 0.001
ED/ambulance 111 (20.4) 680 (31.0)
Hospital ward 160 (29.4) 713 (32.5)
Other hospital 61 (11.2) 273 (12.4)
Other 7 (1.3) 55 (2.5)
Main reason for admission, n (%) Surveillance/monitoring 158 (28.3) 336 (15.2) < 0.001
Neurological 56 (10.0) 350 (15.9)
Respiratory 119 (21.3) 527 (23.9)
Cardiovascular 119 (21.3) 579 (26.3)
Renal 5 (0.9) 33 (1.5)
Digestive/liver 53 (9.5) 154 (7.0)
Trauma 36 (6.5) 198 (9.0)
Other 12 (2.2) 27 (1.2)
Co-morbidities, n (%) COPD 77 (13.8) 457 (20.7) <0.001
Haematological cancer 11 (2.0) 49 (2.2) 0.715
Cancer 82 (14.7) 341 (15.5) 0.649
IDDM 42 (7.5) 221 (10.0) 0.072
Heart Failure (NYHA III-IV) 59 (10.6) 231 (10.5) 0.949
CRF 14 (2.5) 165 (7.5) <0.001
HIV 2 (0.4) 15 (0.7) 0.385
Cirrhosis 14 (2.5) 65 (2.9) 0.577
Immunosuppression 24 (4.3) 95 (4.3) 0.992
Number of co-morbidities, n (%) None 282 (50.5) 1011 (45.9) 0.029
1 195 (34.9) 746 (33.8)
2 61 (10.9) 313 (14.2)
3 16 (2.9) 103 (4.7)
  >3 4 (0.7) 31 (1.4)  
Treatments, n (%) Mechanical ventilation 359 (64.7) 1388 (63.1) 0.502
Haemofiltration or haemodialysis 47 (8.5) 171 (7.8) 0.591
Length of stay, median (25-75 percentile) ICU 5 (1-19) 12 (3-31) < 0.001
Hospital 16 (7-37) 24 (10-54) <0.001
Mortality ICU 83 (15.4) 408 (20.0) 0.016
Hospital 116 (21.5) 551 (27.0) 0.01
  1. OR, operating room; ED, emergency department; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IDDM, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; NYHA III-IV, New York Heart Association class III-IV; CRF, chronic renal failure; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus.