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Table 5 Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for detection of any HPV infection in oral samples

From: Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the oropharynx and urine among sexually active men: a comparative study of infection by papillomavirus and other organisms, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp

  n Oral HPV infection Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Variables Positive Negative Odds ratio 95% CI P Odds ratio 95% CI P
Age (yo)          
 < 35 115 23 92 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
 ≥ 35 98 17 81 0.65 0.12–1.70 0.647 0.71 0.32–1.58 0.402
Urine HPV infection          
 negative 167 22 145 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
 positive 46 18 28 4.24 2.02–8.91 <0.001 3.39 1.49–7.71 0.004
Urethritis          
 negative 122 28 94 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
 positive 91 12 79 0.51 0.24–1.07 0.0711 0.78 0.32–1.81 0.532
Oral samples          
N. gonorrhoeae: negative 177 38 139 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
       positive 36 2 34 0.22 0.05–0.94 0.016 0.096 0.01–0.77 0.027
C. trachomatis: negative 204 39 165 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
       positive 9 1 8 0.53 0.06–4.35 0.470 0.39 0.03–4.69 0.460
M. genitalium: negative 202 39 163 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
       positive 11 1 10 0.42 0.05–3.36 0.353 0.28 0.02–3.10 0.296
M. hominis: negative 191 35 156 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
      positive 22 5 17 1.31 0.45–3.79 0.398 0.68 0.10–4.50 0.692
Ureaplasma: negative 179 33 146 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
      positive 34 7 27 1.15 0.46–2.86 0.464 0.52 0.09–3.16 0.478
Any organisms: negative 126 26 100 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
       positive 87 14 73 0.74 0.36–1.51 0.405 3.84 0.59–27.92 0.184
Urine samples          
N. gonorrhoeae: negative 194 38 156 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
       positive 19 2 17 0.48 0.11–2.18 0.267 0.56 0.04–7.62 0.663
C. trachomatis: negative 180 38 142 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
       positive 33 2 31 0.24 0.06–1.05 0.051 0.21 0.02–2.10 0.186
M. genitalium: negative 197 39 158 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
       positive 16 1 15 0.27 0.04–2.11 0.158 0.64 0.05–8.77 0.737
M. hominis: negative 200 38 162 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
      positive 13 2 11 0.78 0.17–3.64 0.545 0.42 0.06–2.96 0.380
Ureaplasma: negative 173 31 142 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
      positive 40 9 31 1.33 0.58–3.07 0.320 1.29 0.12–10.60 0.814
Any organisms: negative 116 26 90 1.0 (referent)    1.0 (referent)   
       positive 97 14 83 0.58 029–1.19 0.140 0.94 0.09–9.43 0.958
  1. HPV, human papillomavirus.