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Table 1 Demographic data and clinical characteristics of the patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis

From: Predictors of failure of conservative treatment among patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis

Variable, n (%) Surviving (n = 39) Died (n = 5) P-value OR P-value
Median age (y) 60 65 0.32 1. (0.9-1.1) 0.40
Female sex 27 (69.2) 5 (100) 0.30 - -
Underlying condition      
Diabetes mellitus 27 (69.2) 3 (60) 0.65 0.7 (0.1-4.5) 0.68
Hypertension 14 (35.9) 3 (60) 0.36 2.7 (0.4-18) 0.31
Prior cerebrovascular accident 4 (10.3) 1 (20) 0.47 2.2 (0.2-24.7) 0.53
Down syndrome 1 (2.6) 0 (0) 1.00 - -
Liver cirrhosis 3 (7.7) 1 (20) 0.39 3 (0.3-36.1) 0.39
Obstructive uropathy 19 (48.7) 4 (80) 0.35 4.2 (0.4-41.1) 0.22
Urolithasis 19 (48.7) 3 (60) 1.00 1.6 (0.2-10.5) 0.64
Laboratory finding      
Leukocyte (103/μL) 13.8 15.40 0.77 1.0 (0.9-1.1) 0.83
Platelet count (103/mL) 195.0 106.0 0.08 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 0.15
Thrombocytopenia 8 (20.5) 3 (60) 0.09 5.8 (0.8-40.9) 0.08
(≤120,000/mL)
Albumin (g/dL) 2.7 2.8 0.43 0.4 (0.1-2.5) 0.36
Hypoalbuminemia 17 (47.2) 5 (100) 0.05 - -
(<3.0 g/dL)
Hyponatremia 10 (25.6) 2 (40) 0.60 1.9 (0.3-13.3) 0.50
C-reactive Protein (mg/dL) 9.2 5.98 0.67 1.0 (0.9-1.1) 0.68
Pyuria 32 (88.9) 5 (100) 1.00 - -
Hematuria 21 (58.3) 5 (100) 0.14 - -
HbA1C >8% 17 (47.2) 2 (40) 1.00 0.7 (0.1-5.6) 0.73
Image study      
Radiologic classification 21 (56.8) 1 (20) 0.17 0.2 (0.02-2.3) 0.22
(3A,3B,4)a
Involved site (left) 23 (59.0) 3 (60) 1.00 0.9 (0.1-6.3) 0.95
Bilateral involvement 2 (5.1) 0 (0) 1.00 - -
Need for hemodialysis 2 (5.1) 3 (60) 0.01 27.8 (2.8-272.9) 0.004
Inappropriate empirical antibiotic use 3 (8.6) 3 (60) 0.02 16.0 (1.9-136.7) 0.01
Bacteremia 16 (41.0) 4 (80) 0.16 5.8 (0.6-56.4) 0.13
Shock 5 (12.8) 4 (80) 0.004 27.2 (2.5-295.0) 0.01
Acute kidney injury 18 (46.2) 4 (80) 0.35 4.7 (0.5-45.6) 0.19
Altered mental status 11 (28.2) 4 (80) 0.04 10.2 (1.0-101.5) 0.05
Polymicrobial infection 7 (18.0) 5 (100) 0.001 - -
  1. aRadiologic classification is based on the extent of air seen on computed tomography (CT): class 3A, extension of gas or abscess to the perinephric space; class 3B, extension of gas or abscess to the pararenal space; class 4, bilateral EPN or a solitary kidney with EPN.