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Table 2 Predictors of nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and protease inhibitor (PI) resistance

From: Trends and correlates of HIV-1 resistance among subjects failing an antiretroviral treatment over the 2003–2012 decade in Italy

  NRTIaresistance OR (95% CI) NNRTIbresistance OR (95% CI) PIcresistance OR (95% CI)
  Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
Gender, Female vs. Male 0.74 (0.66-0.82) 0.67 (0.58-0.77) 0.93 (0.77-1.11) 0.82 (0.68-0.98) 0.62 (0.55-0.70) 0.59 (0.50-0.69)
Risk factor       
Intravenous drug use - - - - - -
Men having sex with men 1.17 (0.99-1.38) 1.26 (1.05-1.51) 0.63 (0.49-0.81) 0.84 (0.70-1.03) 1.47 (1.22-1.76) 1.45 (1.18-1.79)
Heterosexual sex 1.01 (0.89-1.14) 1.58 (1.36-1.84) 0.78 (0.63-0.97) 0.94 (0.72-1.27) 1.01 (0.88-1.17) 1.61 (1.36-1.91)
Other d 0.87 (0.75-1.01) 1.68 (1.40-2.01) 0.61 (0.47-0.79) 0.89 (0.64-1.23) 0.89 (0.75-1.06) 1.53 (1.26-1.87)
Age, per 10 years older 1.17 (1.10-1.25) 1.09 (1.01-1.17) 0.93 (0.84-1.03) 0.96 (0.85-1.09) 1.17 (1.09-1.25) 1.05 (0.97-1.14)
HIV-1 Subtype, Non-B vs. B 0.48 (0.40-0.56) 0.79 (0.65-0.97) 0.58 (0.44-0.77) 0.80 (0.56-1.15) 0.48 (0.38-.59) 0.83 (0.64-1.06)
Viral load       
> 5 Log copies/ml - - - - - -
4 - 5 Log copies/ml 2.36 (2.04-2.73) 2.16 (1.83-2.55) 2.01 (1.56-2.58) 1.71 (1.23-2.35) 1.83 (1.54-2.17) 1.68 (1.38-2.04)
< 4 Log copies/ml 2.92 (2.54-3.36) 3.06 (2.59-3.61) 3.22 (2.51-4.13) 2.61 (1.89-3.60) 1.60 (1.36-1.89) 1.70 (1.40-2.07)
CD4 cell count       
>350 cells/mmc - - - - - -
200 – 350 cells/mmc 0.65 (0.58-0.74) 0.90 (0.78-1.03) 1.04 (0.85-1.27) 1.07 (0.84-1.36) 0.90 (0.78-1.04) 0.86 (0.73-1.01)
< 200 cells/mmc 0.82 (0.72-0.93) 0.87 (0.75-1.01) 1.01 (0.81-1.25) 1.36 (1.02-1.80) 0.83 (0.72-0.96) 0.88 (0.66-1.12)
Previous virological failure(s) 4.41 (3.84-5.07) 2.07 (1.74-2.47) 4.52 (3.63-5.63) 2.95 (2.17-3.99) 3.88 (3.17-4.75) 1.40 (1.10-1.78)
Prior ARV regimens, per 1 higher 1.16 (1.15-1.18) 1.11 (1.09-1.13) 1.14 (1.11-1.17) 1.03 (0.99-1.07) 1.21 (1.18-1.24) 1.13 (1.11-1.15)
Prior suboptimal NRTI therapy 3.45 (2.85-4.17) 1.50 (1.29-1.74) 2.52 (2.11-3.00) 1.04 (0.80-1.35) 3.16 (2.80-3.57) 1.27 (1.07-1.50)
Antiretrovira regimen in use    - - - -
NNRTI + NRTIs - -     
Boosted PI + NRTIs 0.95 (0.85-1.06) 0.65 (0.56-0.74)     
Unboosted PI + NRTIs 0.84 (0.73-0.98) 0.75 (0.63-0.90)     
PI + NNRTI + NRTI 3.51 (2.66-4.65) 1.87 (1.25-2.78)     
Boosted vs unboosted PI - - - - 1.00 (0.88-1.15) 1.06 (0.90-1.23)
Study period, per 1 period higher 0.56 (0.53-0.59) 0.58 (0.54-0.61) 0.65 (0.59-0.71) 0.74 (0.66-0.82) 0.58 (0.55-0.62) 0.58 (0.54-0.62)
  1. A logistic regression model was performed in subjects failing a combined antiretroviral treatment according to antiretrovirals in use at genotype.
  2. aNucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors.
  3. bNon nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors.
  4. cProtease inhibitors.
  5. dOther: professional risk, transfusions¸ vertical transmission.