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Table 1 Frequencies of major non nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and protease inhibitor (PI)

From: Trends and correlates of HIV-1 resistance among subjects failing an antiretroviral treatment over the 2003–2012 decade in Italy

NNRTIa-mutations
Mutations 2003-2004 (n = 1,143) % (n) 2005-2006 (n = 799) % (n) 2007-2009 (n = 439) % (n) 2010-2012 (n = 158) % (n) P c
L100I 6.65 (76) 8.01 (64) 5.92 (26) 8.86 (14) ns
K103N/S 45.83 (525) 43.30 (346) 31.66 (139) 32.28 (51) <.0001
V106A/M 6.47 (74) 4.51 (36) 3.64 (16) 3.80 (6) .0122
V108I 11.64 (133) 10.64 (85) 10.25 (45) 5.70 (9) .0476
Y181C/I 22.83 (261) 21.78 (174) 15.26 (67) 15.19 (24) .0005
Y188C/H/L 5.34 (61) 6.01 (48) 5.24 (23) 6.96 (11) ns
G190A/S 22.66 (259) 20.78 (166) 13.44 (59) 12.03 (19) <.0001
P225H 5.07 (58) 5.26 (42) 4.10 (18) 4.43 (7) ns
M230L 1.57 (18) 1.38 (11) 1.82 (8) 0.63 (1) ns
PI b -mutations,% (n)
Mutations 2003-2004 (n = 1,461) % (n) 2005-2006 (n = 1,331) % (n) 2007-2009 (n = 1,262) % (n) 2010-2012 (n = 535) % (n) P c
D30N 9.5 (139) 5.9 (79) 2.0 (25) 0.9 (5) <0.0001
V32I 4.8 (70) 5.0 (66) 6.9 (86) 4.1 (22) ns
L33F 13.1 (191) 16.1 (214) 15.5 (196) 6.0 (32) <0.0001
M46I/L 32.6 (477) 32.0 (426) 25.6 (323) 12.1 (65) <0.0001
I47A/V 5.5 (81) 5.1 (68) 5.6 (71) 2.4 (13) ns
G48V 5.3 (77) 4.1 (54) 1.4 (18) 0.4 (2) <0.0001
I50L 0.5 (7) 1.8 (24) 1.9 (24) 1.7 (9) 0.004
I50V 2.0 (29) 2.0 (26) 1.9 (24) 0.9 (5) ns
I54L/M 4.5 (66) 5.9 (78) 9.2 (116) 5.2 (28) 0.010
Q58E 5.9 (87) 9.0 (120) 8.1 (102) 4.9 (26) ns
L76V 3.7 (54) 3.5 (47) 3.2 (40) 1.3 (7) 0.020
V82A/F/T/S 26.9 (393) 27.1 (361) 17.7 (224) 6.4 (34) <0.0001
I84V 13.5 (198) 14.9 (198) 16.0 (202) 5.4 (29) 0.015
N88D/S 8.1 (119) 6.8 (90) 3.4 (43) 2,2 (12) <0.0001
L90M 31.5 (461) 29.8 (397) 20.8 (262) 9.5 (51) <0.0001
  1. NNRTI and PI resistance mutations were evaluated among subjects failing a NNRTI- or a PI-containing regimen, respectively.
  2. aNon nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor.
  3. bProtease inhibitor.
  4. cCochrane-Armitage test for trends.
  5. ns: not significant.