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Table 3 Predictors of unfavorable outcome (compared to cure) assessed at the end of therapy (n = 403)†

From: Predictors of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment outcomes in South Korea: a prospective cohort study, 2005-2012

Variable Univariate Multivariate‡
   OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Gender Female 1   1  
  Male 1.04 0.57-1.87 0.92 0.42-2.01
Age 20-34 1   1  
  35-49 1.09 0.64-1.85 1.00 0.48-2.09
  ≥50 0.70 0.39-1.24 0.78 0.35-1.72
Body Mass Index <18.5 1   -  
  ≥18.5 0.86 0.55-1.34   
Diabetes No 1   1  
  Yes 1.78* 1.07-2.95 2.52** 1.27-5.01
Alcohol, within 6 months Less than once a week 1   1  
  Several times a week 0.40* 0.19-0.83 0.38* 0.16-0.93
  At least once a day 0.59** 0.36-0.98 1.10 0.56-2.19
Smoking, within 6 months Never smoked 1   -  
  < 1 pack/day 1.11 0.63-1.94   
  1 pack/day 0.39** 0.21-0.72   
  > 1 pack/day 0.58 0.30-1.13   
Residential area Small city and town 1   -  
  Large city 1.70* 1.10-2.64   
Education High school, above 1   -  
  Middle school, below or refusal 0.73 0.47-1.15   
Occupation Health care, professional and office work 1   -  
  Service sector and laborer 0.44* 0.23-0.83   
  Unemployment and others 0.56 0.29-1.08   
Chest X-ray      
Grade Minimal or moderate 1   -  
  Far advanced 1.63* 1.05-3.54   
Cavity No 1   -  
  Yes or not clear 1.88* 1.02-3.45   
Nodular lesion No 1   -  
  Yes or not clear 1.48 0.59-3.76   
Bilateral Unilateral 1   -  
  Bilateral 3.45** 1.66-7.19   
Number of previous treatment episodes 0 (new case) 1   1  
  1 2.50* 1.05-5.96 2.38 0.91-6.25
  2 5.02*** 2.11-11.93 2.03 0.72-5.79
  3 10.27*** 4.05-26.04 3.28* 1.06-10.14
  ≥4 28.54*** 13.30-61.24 10.30*** 3.79-27.94
History of failure No 1   -  
  Yes 8.00*** 4.93-12.99   
History of TI No 1   -  
  Yes 2.15** 1.37-3.38   
Number of significant regimen changes 0 1   1  
  ≥1 7.26*** 4.53-11.64 4.01*** 2.16-7.44
Drug susceptibility pattern DS 1   1  
  Mono/poly-R 2.40 0.93-6.18 0.93 0.31-2.78
  Rif, mono-R 2.74 0.53-14.00 0.58 0.07-4.46
  MDR 14.18*** 7.47-26.90 2.75* 1.13-6.72
  1. *p <0.05, **p <0.01, ***p < 0.001.
  2. † Favorable outcome is cured (n = 289) and unfavorable outcome includes failure (n = 65) and death (n = 49) assessed at the end of therapy.
  3. ‡ Multivariate model includes age, gender and all significant factors from the univariate model.
  4. TI: treatment interruption; DS: Drug susceptible, Mono/poly-R: mono or poly-drug resistance that is not matched with the definition of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis or rifampin mono resistance; MDR: multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.