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Table 2 Socio-demographic characteristic and sexual behavioural factors that associated with HIV testing among Chinese MSM

From: Pattern of HIV testing and multiple sexual partnerships among men who have sex with men in China

  Tested within the past 12 months Tested more than 12 months ago Never tested χ2 P-value
  (N = 262; 58.6%) (N = 95; 21.3%) (N = 90; 20.1%)   
  n % n % n %   
Demographic characteristics         
Age        13.95 0.01**
   <20 16 6.1% 1 1.1% 13 14.4%   
   20-39 214 81.7% 80 84.2% 67 74.4%   
   ≥40 30 11.5% 14 14.7% 10 11.1%   
   Missing 2 0.8% 0 0.0% 0 0.0%   
Marital status        16.88 <0.001***
   Never married 163 62.2% 52 54.7% 72 80.0%   
   Married/cohabiting/divorced/widowed 95 36.3% 43 45.3% 15 16.7%   
   Others/Missing 4 1.5% 0 0.0% 3 3.3%   
Residency        3.39 0.18
   Local 122 46.6% 43 45.3% 51 56.7%   
   Non-local 134 51.1% 51 53.7% 37 41.1%   
   Missing 6 2.3% 1 1.1% 2 2.2%   
Recruitment location        1.26 0.53
   Changsha 216 82.4% 43 45.3% 51 56.7%   
   Tianjin 222 84.7% 51 53.7% 37 41.1%   
Education Level        4.94 0.29
   Junior high & lower 24 9.2% 4 4.2% 4 4.4%   
   Senior high 76 29.0% 33 34.7% 32 35.6%   
   College & above 162 61.8% 58 61.1% 53 58.9%   
   Missing 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 1 1.1%   
Occupation        16.60 <0.001***
   Student/Others 143 54.6% 34 35.8% 57 63.3%   
   Employed 117 44.7% 61 64.2% 31 34.4%   
   Missing 2 0.8% 0 0.0% 2 2.2%   
Self-identified sexual identity        1.35 0.51
   Homosexual 213 81.3% 73 76.8% 67 74.4%   
   Heterosexual/Bisexual 46 17.6% 22 23.2% 15 16.7%   
   Unsure/Missing 3 1.1% 0 0.0% 8 8.9%   
Homosexual behaviours (non-commercial)         
Had sex with male partners in the past 6 months        3.18 0.20
   No 17 6.7% 3 3.3% 8 10.0%   
   Yes 237 93.3% 89 96.7% 72 90.0%   
Used condom during the last anal intercourse        25.10 <0.001***
   No 70 29.7% 19 21.6% 41 56.9%   
   Yes 166 70.3% 69 78.4% 31 43.1%   
HIV status of last sexual partners^        5.22 0.07
   Unaware 127 53.8% 49 55.7% 49 69.0%   
   Aware 109 46.1% 39 44.3% 22 31.0%   
     HIV-positive 2 0.8% 2 2.3% 0 0.0%   
     HIV-negative 107 45.3% 37 42.0% 22 31.0%   
Homosexual behaviours (commercial)         
Had commercial sex partners in the past 6 months        3.96 0.14
   No 127 76.0% 41 80.4% 47 88.7%   
   Yes 40 24.0% 10 19.6% 6 11.3%   
Used condom during the last anal intercourse        0.47 0.79
   No 4 10.0% 1 10.0% 1 20.0%   
   Yes 36 90.0% 9 90.0% 4 80.0%   
HIV status of last sexual partners^        N/A N/A
   Unaware 40 100% 5 100% 5 100.0%   
   Aware 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%   
Heterosexual behaviours         
Had female sex partners in the past 6 months        0.52 0.77
   No 127 75.6% 35 71.4% 41 77.4%   
   Yes 41 24.4% 14 28.6% 12 22.6%   
Used condom during the last vaginal intercourse        3.85 0.15
   No 20 50.0% 9 64.3% 9 81.8%   
   Yes 20 50.0% 5 35.7% 2 18.2%   
HIV status of last sexual partners^        9.58 0.05*
   Unaware 22 55.0% 2 14.3% 4 36.4%   
   Aware 18 45.0% 12 85.7% 7 63.6%   
     HIV-positive 0 0% 1 7.1% 1 9.09%   
     HIV-negative 18 45.0% 11 78.6% 6 54.5%   
Multiple partnerships in the past 6 months         
Had both non-commercial male and female sex partners        1.01 0.60
   No 130 79.3% 36 73.5% 43 81.1%   
   Yes 34 20.7% 13 26.5% 10 18.9%   
Used condom with non-commercial male and with female sex partners during the last anal/vaginal intercourse        3.25 0.20
   No 16 48.5% 8 61.5% 8 80.0%   
   Yes 17 51.5% 5 38.5% 2 20.0%   
Had both non-commercial male and commercial male sex partners        5.48 0.06
   No 127 78.4% 41 83.7% 49 92.5%   
   Yes 35 21.6% 8 16.3% 4 7.5%   
Used condom with non-commercial and commercial male sex partners during the last anal intercourse        10.12 0.01**
   No 4 11.8% 1 12.5% 3 75.0%   
   Yes 30 88.2% 7 87.5% 1 25.0%   
Had both female and commercial male sex partners        4.50 0.11
   No 145 88.4% 47 95.9% 49 96.1%   
   Yes 19 11.6% 2 4.1% 2 3.9%   
Used condom with commercial male and with female sex partners during the last anal/vaginal intercourse        3.16 0.21
   No 6 30.0% 0 0% 1 100%   
   Yes 14 70.0% 2 100% 0 0%   
Had both non-commercial male, commercial male and female sex partners        6.16 0.05*
   No 145 90.6% 47 95.9% 51 100%   
   Yes 15 9.4% 2 4.1% 0 0%   
Used condom with non-commercial male, commercial male and female sex partners during the last sexual intercourse        0.70 0.40
   No 4 26.7% 0 0% 0 0%   
   Yes 11 73.3% 2 100% 0 0%   
  1. Note: *p < 0.05, ** p <0.01 and *** p <0.001.
  2. ^Chi-square test was performed between MSM who were aware their partners’ HIV status (positive or negative) and those who were not.