- Case report
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Acute osteomyelitis of the humerus mimicking malignancy: Streptococcus pneumoniaeas exceptional pathogen in an immunocompetent adult
© Prodinger et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 13 July 2012
Accepted: 27 May 2013
Published: 5 June 2013
Chronic osteomyelitis due to direct bone trauma or vascular insufficiency is a frequent problem in orthopaedic surgery. In contrast, acute haematogenous osteomyelitis represents a rare entity that almost exclusively affects prepubescent children or immunodeficient adults.
In this article, we report the case of acute pneumococcal osteomyelitis of the humerus in an immunocompetent and otherwise healthy 44-year-old male patient presenting with minor inflammation signs and misleading clinical features.
The diagnosis had to be confirmed by open biopsy which allowed the initiation of a targeted therapy. A case of pneumococcal osteomyelitis of a long bone, lacking predisposing factors or trauma, is unique in adults and has not been reported previously.
S. pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-haemolytic and bile soluble diplococcus. This bacteria is facultative anaerobe and a member of the genus Streptococcus. S. pneumonia, it’s the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and children, and is one of the top two isolates found in otitis media . Bacteremia rarely leads to pneumococcal osteomyelitis or septic arthritis in premature infants and neonates  or in immunodeficient adults . S. pneumoniae has never been associated to acute osteomyelitis in immunocompetent patients so far.
In the following we present the case of acute osteomyelitis caused by pneumococci in a healthy adult patient. Due to the nonspecific nature of the clinical and radiological features presented, diagnosis had to be secured by open biopsy. This enabled us to initiate targeted antibiotic treatment. In this article we furthermore review the recent literature and discuss actual therapeutic strategies for acute, haematogenous osteomyelitis.
A 44-year-old otherwise healthy male was referred to the orthopaedic unit with a four week history of minor pain in the right upper arm. The onset of pain was accompanied by an episode of flu-like symptoms that subsided immediately. Later, an indolent swelling was noted on the lateral side of the upper arm. Increasing numbness in the lateral forearm and hand finally encouraged the patient to consult his practitioner.
The patient was discharged on the 10th postoperative day showing no signs of infection. Antimicrobiotic treatment was changed to Cefuroxim 1000 mg/d p.o. and continued for four weeks. Following check-ups after 30 days, 3 months and 9 months did not result in any pathological finding. Clinically, the scar tissue showed no signs of persistent infection, the patient did not report any pain in the shoulder or arm and the function of the limb was normal. The white blood cell count was normal at discharge and stayed normal during the whole follow up. CRP at discharge was slightly elevated (1,1 mg/dl [norm: <0,5 mg/dl]), at 30 days it decreased to 0,3 mg/dl and stayed below 0,5 mg/dl thereafter. We performed X-rays of the humerus after 30 days and a control MRI-scan after 3 months. Both revealed no signs of osteonecrosis complicating the infection.
Acute osteomyelitis in adults is rare and generally linked to immunodeficiency, diabetes, vasculopathy, precedent trauma or surgery . A haematogenous spread of bacteria leading to osteomyelitis is mostly seen in prepubescent children or elderly patients and is characterised by nidation of bacteria within bones without direct trauma or open wound . Haematogenous osteomyelitis is well known as being the most common musculoskeletal complication in patients with HIV or AIDS . However, in the literature there is not one single case of acute, haematogenous pneumococcal osteomyelitis affecting long bones in an otherwise healthy adult patient who lacks trauma history or immunodeficiency.
Bacteria causing haematogenous osteomyelitis reflect their frequency in the blood as a function of age [6, 7]. Thus, organisms most commonly encountered in infants and neonates include Staphylococcus aureus, group B streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci and different other streptococci [7–10]. With age, S. aureus dominates. In elderly people, commonly subject to gram-negative bacteremia, osteomyelitis - especially vertebral osteomyelitis - can also be caused by this group of microorganisms . Pneumococci as uncommon infectious agent of the bone are rarely known to cause vertebral osteomyelitis [4, 12–14]. Pneumococcal bone manifestations are generally linked to clinically apparent upper and lower respiratory tract infections caused by S. pneumoniae, sickle cell anemia  or direct bone trauma [12, 13]. Asplenia is also associated with an increased risk of severe pneumococcal infections, thus predisposing for affecting the bone via haematogenous spread . All mentioned co-factors were missing in this particular case.
The clinical features of haematogenous, acute osteomyelitis in long bones are typical: chills, fever, and malaise reflect the bacteremic spread of microorganisms as shown by positive blood cultures. Strong pain and local swelling are hallmarks of the local infectious process. The clinical examination should include a search for bone tenderness on palpitation . By contrast, in our case the clinical symptoms were a painless swelling and nerve disfunction, being strongly suggestive for a continuously growing process commonly found in primary bone tumours or metastases.
Distinguishing between subclinical haematogenous osteomyelitis and primary or metastatic bone tumours by imaging can be challenging [16, 17]. The earliest radiographic changes in osteomyelitis are swelling of soft tissue, periosteal thickening or focal osteopenia, which is frequently observed in malignant bone tumours as well [17, 18]. The typical appearance of acute osteomyelitis in MRI is a localized area of abnormal marrow with decreased signal intensity in T1-weighted images and increased signal intensity in T2-weighted images , as shown in our case. MRI is highly sensitive in the detection of pathologic changes in bone marrow and can give precise information about the localization and extent of an infection, but it has not yet provided pathognomonic findings for osteomyelitis . Thus, the presence of a primary or metastatic bone tumour had to be excluded by open biopsy.
Recommendations concerning antibiotic treatment of hematogenous osteomyelitis differ regionally according to the local type and resistance-pattern of the causing bacteria. In Germany, the Paul-Ehrlich society would favour a combination of 2nd generation cephalosporin with clindamycin as first-line calculated therapy in adults, assuming that the infection is most likely be caused by S. aureus or β-haemolysing streptococci . In pediatric osteomyelitis, up to 5% of all cases were identified to be caused by S. pneumoniae. S. aureus as the top-isolate and also pneumococci do respond to a first line antibiotic treatment with a 1st generation cephalosporin, clindamycin or high-dose penicillin G according to most authors [20–22]. Notably, S. pneumoniae has been shown to have a lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to penicillin than other streptococci (e.g. S. pyogenes), though the clinical impact is questionable and depends on the breakpoint used. Altogether, resistant strains are not frequent and account for only 0.24% . Unlike in adult osteomyelitis, no extensive surgical therapy is required in children. However, it is also important to gain representative tissue samples from the bone to be able to initiate targeted therapy after culture . The duration of the antibiotic treatment should be 1–3 months. Recent studies challenged this approach and suggest that 20 days of treatment including an initial i.v. period of 2–4 days should be sufficient to control the infection .
Invasive pneumococcal infections in adults are rare and generally affect immunodeficient patients. Resistance-patterns to antibiotics vary regionally and depend on the breakpoint of the MIC-definition used. In most countries high-dose parenteral penicillin G or cefuroxim are recommended as first-line therapy. Cefriaxone has been shown to have one of the lowest MICs making this substance effective, especially in the treatment of severe pneumococcal infections [24, 25]. Specific treatment recommendations for pneumococcal osteomyelitis in adults are completely missing. On the basis that ceftriaxone is a very effective substance against other severe pneumococcal infections in pediatric and aduld patients [2, 25] we adopted this substance once the bacteria was identified and were able to control the symptoms within a short period. Retrospectively, one can assume that high-dose penicillin G would have had the same efficacy. In addition, the continuation of cefuroxime, probably combined with clindamycin would have been another reasonable alternative.
According to recent treatment guidelines, the initial i.v. therapy of hematogenous osteomyelitis should last for 1–4 weeks and should be continued by p.o. therapy for 2–6 weeks . Since our patient received i.v. therapy for only 10 days, the total duration of therapy was rather short. However, since all inflammatory parameters were within the normal range and clinical inspection did also not reveal symptoms of infection 30 days after discharge, we stopped therapy at this time point. As given above, therapy for uncomplicated cases of osteomyelitis in children is even shorter [26, 27]. 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins were identified as major risk factors for developing pseudomembranotic colitis, especially in combination with clindamycin [28, 29]. We therefore decided to use the 2nd generation cephalosporin alone for ambulatory treatment.
Haematogenous spreading of bacteria can cause acute osteomyelitis in prepubescent children and immunodeficient adults. Frequently, the vertebral bodies are affected. Manifestations in long bones seem to be exceptional in immunocompetent patients but should be considered. S. pneumoniae is an unexpected bacterial agent in mature patients showing absence of respiratory tract infections or pharyngeal colonisation. Non-specific clinical and imaging findings necessitate open biopsy. Microbiological and pathologic evaluation of the material obtained should be performed to isolate the causative pathogen and achieve appropriate treatment.
To summarize, not one of the mentioned etiological aspects for developing acute, haematogenous osteomyelitis matches the case described and the clinical symptoms were misleading. Nevertheless, close workup of clinical and radiological findings led to the suspicion of acute osteomyelitis, which was confirmed and completed by the microbiological results. Therefore, this case approves the surgical principle: “Biopsy what you culture and culture what you biopsy!”
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this Case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
This publication was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the University of Wuerzburg in the funding programme Open Access Publishing.
- Casey JR, Pichichero ME: Changes in frequency and pathogens causing acute otitis media in 1995–2003. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004, 23 (9): 824-828. 10.1097/01.inf.0000136871.51792.19.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoffman JA, Mason EO, Schutze GE, Tan TQ, Barson WJ, Givner LB, Wald ER, Bradley JS, Yogev R, Kaplan SL: Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in the neonate. Pediatrics. 2003, 112 (5): 1095-1102. 10.1542/peds.112.5.1095.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oliker R, Cunha BA: Streptococcus pneumoniae septic arthritis and osteomyelitis in an HIV-seropositive patient. Heart Lung. 1999, 28 (1): 74-76. 10.1016/S0147-9563(99)70045-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lew DP, Waldvogel FA: Osteomyelitis. Lancet. 2004, 364 (9431): 369-379. 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16727-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Biviji AA, Paiement GD, Steinbach LS: Musculoskeletal manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2002, 10 (5): 312-320.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bonhoeffer J, Haeberle B, Schaad UB, Heininger U: Diagnosis of acute haematogenous osteomyelitis and septic arthritis: 20 years experience at the University Children's Hospital Basel. Swiss Med Wkly. 2001, 131 (39–40): 575-581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wong M, Isaacs D, Howman-Giles R, Uren R: Clinical and diagnostic features of osteomyelitis occurring in the first three months of life. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1995, 14 (12): 1047-1053. 10.1097/00006454-199512000-00004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eggink BH, Rowen JL: Primary osteomyelitis and suppurative arthritis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci in a preterm neonate. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003, 22 (6): 572-573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Narang A, Mukhopadhyay K, Kumar P, Bhakoo ON: Bone and joint infection in neonates. Indian J Pediatr. 1998, 65 (3): 461-464. 10.1007/BF02761144.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parsch K, Savvidis E: [Coxitis in the newborn infant and infant. Diagnosis and therapy]. Orthopade. 1997, 26 (10): 838-847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nolla JM, Ariza J, Gomez-Vaquero C, Fiter J, Bermejo J, Valverde J, Escofet DR, Gudiol F: Spontaneous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis in nondrug users. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2002, 31 (4): 271-278. 10.1053/sarh.2002.29492.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kutas LM, Duggan JM, Kauffman CA: Pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1995, 20 (2): 286-290. 10.1093/clinids/20.2.286.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poyanli A, Poyanli O, Akan K, Sencer S: Pneumococcal vertebral osteomyelitis: a unique case with atypical clinical course. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001, 26 (21): 2397-2399. 10.1097/00007632-200111010-00020.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schleiter G, Gantz NM: Vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae: a pathophysiologic understanding. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1986, 5 (1): 77-80. 10.1016/0732-8893(86)90094-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schutze GE, Mason EO, Barson WJ, Kim KS, Wald ER, Givner LB, Tan TQ, Bradley JS, Yogev R, Kaplan SL: Invasive pneumococcal infections in children with asplenia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002, 21 (4): 278-282. 10.1097/00006454-200204000-00004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lazzarini L, Mader JT, Calhoun JH: Osteomyelitis in long bones. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004, 86-A (10): 2305-2318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shimose S, Sugita T, Kubo T, Matsuo T, Nobuto H, Ochi M: Differential diagnosis between osteomyelitis and bone tumors. Acta Radiol. 2008, 49 (8): 928-933. 10.1080/02841850802241809.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holzapfel BM, Ludemann M, Holzapfel DE, Rechl H, Rudert M: [Open biopsy of bone and soft tissue tumors: guidelines for precise surgical procedures]. Oper Orthop Traumatol. 2012, 24 (4–5): 403-415. quiz 416–407View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bodemann KF GB: [Empfehlungen zur kalkulierten parenteralen Initialtherapie bakterieller Erkrankungen bei Erwachsenen - Update 2010. Paul-Ehrlich-Gesellschaft für Chemotherapie]. Chemother J. 2010, 19: 179-255.Google Scholar
- Peltola H, Paakkonen M, Kallio P, Kallio MJ: Clindamycin vs. first-generation cephalosporins for acute osteoarticular infections of childhood--a prospective quasi-randomized controlled trial. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012, 18 (6): 582-589. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03643.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jaberi FM, Shahcheraghi GH, Ahadzadeh M: Short-term intravenous antibiotic treatment of acute hematogenous bone and joint infection in children: a prospective randomized trial. J Pediatr Orthop. 2002, 22 (3): 317-320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paakkonen M, Peltola H: Antibiotic treatment for acute haematogenous osteomyelitis of childhood: moving towards shorter courses and oral administration. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011, 38 (4): 273-280. 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.04.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mera RM, Miller LA, Amrine-Madsen H, Sahm DF: Impact of new Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin susceptibility testing breakpoints on reported resistance changes over time. Microb Drug Resist. 2011, 17 (1): 47-52. 10.1089/mdr.2010.0129.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oncu S, Erdem H, Pahsa A: Therapeutic options for pneumococcal pneumonia in Turkey. Clin Ther. 2005, 27 (6): 674-683. 10.1016/j.clinthera.2005.06.009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yu VL, Baddour LM: Infection by drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae is not linked to increased mortality. Clin Infect Dis. 2004, 39 (7): 1086-1087. 10.1086/423812. author reply 1087–1088View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dodwell ER: Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children: current concepts. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013, 25 (1): 58-63. 10.1097/MOP.0b013e32835c2b42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jagodzinski NA, Kanwar R, Graham K, Bache CE: Prospective evaluation of a shortened regimen of treatment for acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 2009, 29 (5): 518-525. 10.1097/BPO.0b013e3181ab472d.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Al-Eidan FA, McElnay JC, Scott MG, Kearney MP: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in hospitalised patients. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2000, 25 (2): 101-109. 10.1046/j.1365-2710.2000.00266.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kee VR: Clostridium difficile infection in older adults: a review and update on its management. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2012, 10 (1): 14-24. 10.1016/j.amjopharm.2011.12.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/13/266/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.