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Figure 2 | BMC Infectious Diseases

Figure 2

From: Plasma metabolomics identifies lipid abnormalities linked to markers of inflammation, microbial translocation, and hepatic function in HIV patients receiving protease inhibitors

Figure 2

Metabolic pathways altered in HIV + HCV - and HIV + HCV + subjects on PI-based ART. (A) PCA analysis shows separation of control (blue), HIV+HCV- (green), and HIV+HCV+ (red) metabolomes (n=227 metabolites) in initial and validation cohorts. (B) Venn diagram showing the distribution of metabolites altered in HIV+HCV+ subjects in initial and validation cohorts (n=46; FC>1.3, p<0.05, FDR<10%). (C) Box plots of metabolite classes altered in HIV+HCV- (n=7) or HIV+HCV+ (n=10) subjects compared to controls (n=8) matched for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Medians are represented by horizontal bars, boxes span the interquartile range (IQR) and whiskers extend to extreme data points within 1.5 times IQR. Outliers plotted as open circles lie outside 1.5 times the IQR. Grey, orange, and red box plots represent controls, HIV+HCV- and HIV+HCV+ subjects, respectively. P-values were calculated using Welch’s t-tests. K:T ratio; kynurenine to tryptophan ratio.

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