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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients

From: Serum cortisol predicts death and critical disease independently of CRB-65 score in community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective observational cohort study

characteristic Total (n = 984) Non-survivors a (N = 64) Survivors a (N = 920) p-value b Critical CAP c (N = 85) No critical CAP c (N = 899) p-value b
Age (years ± SD) 58.7 (± 18.1) 75.4 (± 9.8) 57,5 (± 17.9) < 0.001 69.5 (± 13.4) 57.7 (± 18.1) < 0.001
Male sex N (%) 558 (56.7) 46 (71.8) 512 (55.7) 0.011 59 (69) 499 (56) 0.013
Smoker N (%) 309 (31.4) 15 (23.4) 294 (32.0) 0.15 28 (32.9) 281 (31.3) 0.75
Prior antibiotics N (%) 276 (28.0) 12 (18.8) 264 (28.7) 0.09 15 (17.6) 261 (29.0) 0.026
Nursing home N (%) 28 (2.8) 7 (10.9) 21 (2.3) < 0.001 10 (11.8) 18 (2.0) < 0.001
Pathogen established N(%) 195 (19,8) 13 (20,3) 182 (19,8) 0.92 23 (27,1) 172 (19,1) 0.08
Comorbidities N (%)        
Congestive heart failure 150 (15.2) 29 (45.3) 121 (13.2) < 0.001 31 (36.5) 119 (13.3) < 0.001
Chronic respiratory disease 360 (36.6) 27 (42.9) 333 (36.4) 0.30 41 (48.8) 319 (35.6) 0.017
Chronic renal disease 71 (7.2) 17 (27.0) 54 (5.9) < 0.001 14 (16.7) 57 (6.4) < 0.001
Chronic liver disease 33 (3.4) 2 (3.1) 31 (3.4) 0.91 0 (0) 33 (3.7) 0.07
Cerebrovascular disease 60 (6.1) 11 (17.2) 49 (5.3) < 0.001 11 (12.9) 49 (5.5) 0.006
Malignancy 88 (8.9) 16 (25.0) 72 (7.9) < 0.001 13 (15.3) 75 (8.4) 0.034
Diabetes mellitus 164 (16.7) 20 (31.3) 144 (15.7) 0.001 27 (31.8) 137 (15.2) < 0.001
CRB-65 N (%)     < 0.001    < 0.001
0 417 (42.4) 3 (4.7) 414 (45.0)   9 (10.6) 408 (45.4)  
1 415 (42.2) 32 (50) 383 (41.6)   31 (36.5) 384 (42.7)  
2 132 (13.4) 24 (37.5) 108 (11.7)   34 (40.0) 98 (10.9)  
3 19 (1.9) 4 (6.3) 15 (1.6)   10 (11.8) 9 (1)  
4 1 (0.1) 1 (1.6) 0 (0)   1 (1.2) 0 (0)  
Biomarker (median, IQRd)        
Cortisol (nmol/L) 621 (419-866) 870 (624-1359) 602 (407-843) < 0.001 972 (626-1520) 598 (406-837) < 0.001
WBCe (109/mL) 10.7 (8.0-14.5) 13.2 (9.4-16.8) 10.6 (8.0-14.3) 0.003 13.6 (10.2-17.1) 10.5 (7.9-14.3) < 0.001
CRPf (mg/L) 71.9 (18.8-167) 121.3 (55-230) 67.9 (18-163) < 0.001 141 (73-246) 66 (17-158) < 0.001
  1. a survival at 30 days; b bold values indicate significant differences; c critical CAP = presence of one of the following: death occurring during antibiotic treatment, mechanical ventilation, catecholamine treatment or ICU admission; d IQR = interquartile range; e WBC = leucocyte count; f CRP = C-reactive protein