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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics*

From: An institutional perspective on the impact of recent antibiotic exposure on length of stay and hospital costs for patients with gram-negative sepsis

Variable Prior Antibiotic Exposure (n = 310) No Prior Antibiotic Exposure (n = 444) P- value
Age (years) 56.9 ± 16.6 60.9 ± 16.0 0.001
Male 170 (54.8) 224 (50.5) 0.235
Infection Onset Type    
   Community-acquired 0 (0.0) 71 (16.0) <0.001
   Healthcare-associated community-onset 30 (9.7) 236 (53.2)  
   Healthcare-associated hospital-onset 280 (90.3) 137 (30.9)  
Duration of hospitalization prior to sepsis (days) 20.4 ± 17.1 3.2 ± 5.3 <0.001
Underlying Comorbidities    
   Congestive Heart Failure 53 (17.1) 91 (20.5) 0.243
   Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 62 (20.0) 74 (16.7) 0.241
   Chronic Kidney Disease 39 (12.6) 70 (15.8) 0.221
   Liver Disease 37 (11.9) 57 (12.8) 0.712
   Active Malignancy 95 (30.6) 146 (32.9) 0.517
   Diabetes 65 (21.0) 104 (23.4) 0.426
APACHE II score 23.5 ± 6.5 23.8 ± 6.9 0.525
Charlson co-morbidity score 4.3 ± 3.7 5.2 ± 3.6 0.002
In ICU when sepsis occurred 265 (85.5) 331 (74.5) <0.001
Vasopressors 207 (66.8) 234 (52.7) <0.001
Mechanical Ventilation 221 (71.3) 196 (44.1) <0.001
Drotrecogin alfa (activated) 8 (2.6) 23 (5.2) 0.077
Organ Dysfunction    
   Cardiovascular 214 (69.0) 253 (57.0) 0.001
   Respiratory 238 (76.8) 228 (51.4) <0.001
   Renal 163 (52.6) 240 (54.1) 0.690
   Hepatic 24 (7.7) 31 (7.0) 0.693
   Hematologic 88 (28.3) 141 (31.8) 0.322
   Neurologic 17 (5.5) 31 (7.0) 0.407
Number of organ failures 2.4 ± 1.0 2.1 ± 1.1 <0.001
Source of Bacteremia#    
   Lungs 166 (53.5) 134 (30.2) <0.001
   Urinary Tract 67 (21.6) 163 (36.7) <0.001
   Central Venous Catheter 16 (5.2) 40 (9.0) 0.047
   Intra-abdominal 64 (20.6) 73 (16.4) 0.141
   Unknown 8 (2.6) 41 (9.2) <0.001
  1. Values are expressed as number (%) and mean ± standard deviation.
  2. APACHE = acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; ICU = intensive care unit.
  3. *Data from hospital admission (demographics and underlying comorbidities) or within 24 hours of obtaining a positive blood culture in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.
  4. #Defined using Centers for Disease Control criteria (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/pdf/nnis/NosInfDefinitions.pdf)