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Table 3 Risk factors for carriage of S. pneumoniae, non-typable (NT) H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and S. aureus by univariate and multivariate analysis

From: Nasopharyngeal flora in children with acute otitis media before and after implementation of 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in France

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis*
  OR [95% CI] P value OR [95% CI] P value
Carriage of S. pneumoniae     
Fever ≥ 38.5°C 1.47 1.30;1.66 < 0.0001 1.3 1.11;1.54 0.002
Daycare centre attendance 1.45 1.28;1.65 < 0.0001 1.51 1.28;1.78 < 0.0001
Carriage of M. catarrhalis 1.41 1.25;1.59 < 0.0001 1.17 1.01;1.36 0.034
Period of the study 1.01 0.89;1.14 0.905 0.85 0.69;1.05 0.130
Age ≥ 12 months 0.99 0.88;1.11 0.853 0.94 0.81;1.09 0.392
Antibiotic use 3 months before enrolment 0.80 0.69;0.92 0.002 0.76 0.66;0.89 < 0.0001
Carriage of H. influenzae 0.80 0.71;0.90 < 0.0001 0.84 0.72;0.98 0.028
Conjunctivitis 0.50 0.43;0.57 < 0.0001 0.52 0.44;0.62 < 0.0001
Carriage of S. aureus 0.36 0.27;0.46 < 0.0001 0.49 0.35;0.67 < 0.0001
Carriage of NT H. influenzae     
Conjunctivitis 4.64 3.98;5.42 < 0.0001 4.39 3.67;5.26 < 0.0001
Daycare centre attendance 1.63 1.44;1.85 < 0.0001 1.40 1.18;1.65 < 0.0001
Age ≥ 12 months 1.43 1.27;1.62 < 0.0001 1.28 1.10;1.48 0.001
Antibiotic use 3 months before enrolment 1.27 1.10;1.46 0.001 1.22 1.05;1.42 0.01
Period of the study 1.08 0.96;1.22 0.224 0.89 0.73;1.08 0.261
Carriage of S. pneumoniae 0.80 0.71;0.90 < 0.0001 0.83 0.71;0.96 0.015
Carriage of S. aureus 0.47 0.35;0.62 < 0.0001 0.61 0.43;0.85 0.004
Carriage of M. catarrhalis     
Daycare centre attendance 1.91 1.68;2.17 < 0.0001 1.83 1.60;2.09 < 0.0001
Carriage of S. pneumoniae 1.41 1.25;1.59 < 0.0001 1.23 1.08;1.39 0.001
Fever ≥ 38.5°C 1.30 1.15;1.46 < 0.0001 1.17 1.03;1.33 0.015
Period of the study 1.22 1.08;1.38 0.001 1.08 0.95;1.22 0.255
Age ≥ 12 months 1.14 1.01;1.28 0.037 1.05 0.93;1.19 0.424
Conjunctivitis 0.79 0.68;0.90 0.001 0.77 0.67;0.89 < 0.0001
Carriage of S. aureus 0.40 0.31;0.52 < 0.0001 0.44 0.33;0.58 < 0.0001
Carriage of S. aureus     
Carriage of S. pneumoniae 0.36 0.27;0.47 < 0.0001 0.35 0.26;0.46 < 0.0001
Carriage of H. influenzae 0.47 0.35;0.62 < 0.0001 0.43 0.33;0.57 < 0.0001
Carriage of M. catarrhalis 0.40 0.31;0.52 < 0.0001 0.42 0.32;0.55 < 0.0001
Age ≥ 12 months 0.61 0.47;0.79 < 0.0001 0.65 0.50;0.85 0.002
Period of the study 0.84 0.65;1.08 0.173 0.92 0.70; 1.19 0.521
  1. OR = odds ratio; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval.
  2. *Tested variables in the regression logistic model were: period of the study, age, daycare attendances modalities, conjunctivitis, fever ≥ 38.5°C, otalgia, antibiotic 3 months before inclusion, Sp, Hi, Bc and Sa carriage. Only variables kept in the final model are presented in the table.
  3. - Daycare center attendance was associated with increased carriage rates of Sp, NTHi and Mc.
  4. - Age > 12 months was associated with increased NTHi carriage and with decreased Sa carriage.
  5. - Fever ≥ 38.5°C was associated with an increased risk of Sp carriage.
  6. - Conjunctivitis was associated with an increased risk of NTHi carriage and a decreased risk of Sp carriage.