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Table 5 Multivariable analysis for predictors of qRT-PCR confirmed influenza infection and clinical influenza among included households in separate models allowing for within household correlation.

From: The role of facemasks and hand hygiene in the prevention of influenza transmission in households: results from a cluster randomised trial; Berlin, Germany, 2009-2011

  Variable RT-PCR confirmed Influenza ILI
   OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Complete Data Intervention Group*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
     Mask Group 0.3 0.1-0.94 0.04 0.5 0.2-1.6 0.3
     Mask & Hygiene Group 0.59 0.2-1.5 0.3 0.49 0.2-1.6 0.2
  Intervention Groups combined*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
  Mask Group + Mask & Hygiene Group 0.45 0.2-1.1 0.07 0.5 0.2-1.3 0.2
2009/2010 Intervention Group*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
     Mask Group 0.21 0.03-1.4 0.1 0.7 0.13-3.4 0.6
     Mask & Hygiene Group 0.21 0.04-1.09 0.06 0.5 0.09-2.2 0.3
  Intervention Groups combined*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
  Mask Group + Mask & Hygiene Group 0.21 0.05-0.9 0.04 0.53 0.14-2.08 0.4
2010/2011 Intervention Group*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
     Mask Group 0.32 0.07-1.49 0.15 0.4 0.06-2.3 0.3
     Mask & Hygiene Group 0.94 0.25-3.5 0.9 0.51 0.09-3.3 0.5
  Intervention Groups combined*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
  Mask Group + Mask & Hygiene Group 0.6 0.2-2.0 0.4 0.4 0.1-1.9 0.3
Implementation of intervention < 36 h after symptom onset Intervention Group**       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
     Mask Group 0.23 0.02-3.02 0.26 0.7 0.07-7.9 0.8
     Mask & Hygiene Group 0.21 0.02-2.33 0.2 0.2 0.01-3.4 0.3
  Intervention Groups combined**       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
  Mask Group + Mask & Hygiene Group 0.22 0.03-1.6 0.1 0.4 0.05-3.3 0.4
Only A/H1N1 pdm09 Infection Intervention Group*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
     Mask Group 0.28 0.08-0.97 0.04 0.46 0.1-1.7 0.2
     Mask & Hygiene Group 0.26 0.07-0.93 0.04 0.26 0.06-1.17 0.08
  Intervention Groups combined*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
  Mask Group + Mask & Hygiene Group 0.27 0.1-0.76 0.01 0.36 0.1-1.1 0.08
  1. Per-protocol analysis. (n = 216 household contacts)
  2. OR Odds ratio, 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval. * adjusted for age, sex, timely therapy of the index, vaccination of household contacts, time spent at home. ** adjusted for age, sex, timely therapy of the index, time spent at home