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Table 4 Multivariable analysis for predictors of qRT-PCR confirmed influenza infection and clinical influenza among included households in separate models allowing for within household correlation.

From: The role of facemasks and hand hygiene in the prevention of influenza transmission in households: results from a cluster randomised trial; Berlin, Germany, 2009-2011

  Variable RT-PCR confirmed Influenza ILI
   OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Complete Data Intervention Group*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
     Mask Group 0.39 0.13-1.17 0.09 0.61 0.2-1.87 0.39
     Mask & Hygiene Group 0.62 0.23-1.65 0.34 0.50 0.16-1.58 0.24
  Intervention Groups combined*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
  Mask Group + Mask & Hygiene Group 0.50 0.21-1.19 0.12 0.55 0.22-1.40 0.21
2009/2010 Intervention Group*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
     Mask Group 0.34 0.07-1.76 0.20 0.74 0.17-3.2 0.68
     Mask & Hygiene Group 0.23 0.05-1.13 0.07 0.41 0.09-1.84 0.24
  Intervention Groups combined*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
  Mask Group + Mask & Hygiene Group 0.28 0.08-1.05 0.06 0.54 0.16-1.85 0.32
2010/2011 Intervention Group*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
     Mask Group 0.35 0.07-1.63 0.18 0.37 0.06-2.35 0.3
     Mask & Hygiene Group 1.0 0.26-3.78 1.0 0.55 0.09-3.44 0.5
  Intervention Groups combined*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
     Mask & Hygiene Group 0.63 0.19-2.11 0.45 0.45*** 0.1-2.0 0.3
Implementation of intervention < 36 h after symptom onset Intervention Group**       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
     Mask Group 0.21 0.02-2.02 0.18 0.63 0.08-4.92 0.66
     Mask & Hygiene Group 0.13 0.01-1.28 0.08 0.17 0.01-2.03 0.16
  Intervention Groups combined**       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
  Mask Group + Mask & Hygiene Group 0.16 0.03-0.92 0.04 0.34 0.06-2.13 0.25
Only A/H1N1 pdm09 Infection Intervention Group*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
     Mask Group 0.37 0.12-1.19 0.10 0.55 0.17-1.84 0.33
     Mask & Hygiene Group 0.27 0.07-0.99 0.049 0.26 0.06-1.15 0.08
  Intervention Groups combined*       
     Control Group Ref.    Ref.   
  Mask Group + Mask & Hygiene Group 0.33 0.12-0.88 0.027 0.41 0.14-1.19 0.1
  1. Intention-to-treat analysis. (n = 216 household contacts)
  2. OR Odds ratio, 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval. * adjusted for age, sex, timely therapy of the index, vaccination of household contacts, time spent at home. ** adjusted for age, sex, timely therapy of the index, time spent at home. *** adjusted for age and sex