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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of index patients and household contacts, stratified by season and intervention group

From: The role of facemasks and hand hygiene in the prevention of influenza transmission in households: results from a cluster randomised trial; Berlin, Germany, 2009-2011

Variable 2009/2010 2010/2011
  Control Group Mask Group Mask & Hygiene Group Control Group Mask Group Mask & Hygiene Group
Index Cases - n 13 11 17 17 15 11
Influenza virus subtype:
   A(H1N1)pdm09 - n/n (%) 13/13 (100) 11/11(100) 17/17 (100) 8/17 (47) 11/15 (73) 5/11 (45)
   B - n/n (%) 0 0 0 10/17 (53) 4/15 (27) 6/11 (55)
Age (years) - median (IQR) 8 (7-10) 7 (5-10) 7 (4-10) 8 (6-11) 8 (4-9) 7 (5-9)
Age < 14 years - n/n (%) 12/13 (92) 11/11(100) 16/17 (94) 17/17 (100) 14/15 (93) 11/11 (100)
Sex male - n/n (%) 5/13 (39) 5/11 (45) 10/17 (59) 13/17 (77) 10/15 (67) 7/11 (64)
Vaccinated* - n/n (%) 0 0 0 2/17 (12) 2/15 (13) 0
Antiviral Therapy** - n/n (%) 3/13 (23) 0 2/17 (12) 11/17 (65) 11/15 (73) 10/11 (91)
Chronic Illness - n/n (%) 1/12 (8) 1/11 (9) 0 4/17 (24) 2/15 (13) 0
Symptoms:       
   Fever/Chills - n/n (%) 13/13(100) 11/11(100) 17/17(100) 17/17(100) 15/15(100) 11/11(100)
   Cough - n/n (%) 12/13 (92) 11/11(100) 16/17 (94) 16/17 (94) 14/15 (93) 10/11 (91)
   Sore Throat - n/n (%) 4/13 (31) 6/11 (55) 9/17 (53) 10/17 (59) 9/15 (60) 7/11 (64)
   Myalgia - n/n (%) 11/13 (85) 9/11 (82) 11/17 (65) 14/17 (82) 14/15 (93) 9/11 (82)
Symptom onset to rando-misation (hours) - mean ± SD 23.1 (3.7) 27.5 (12.4) 27.5 (11.5) 28.1 (13.9) 35.7 (8.7) 33.2 (11.2)
Symptom onset to first household visit - mean ± SD:       
   < 36 h 6/13 (46) 5/11 (46) 9/17 (52) 4/17 (24) 1/15 (7) 1/11 (9)
   36-48 h 4/13 (31) 2/11 (18) 4/17 (24) 9/17 (52) 7/15 (47) 6/55 (55)
   48-60 h 3/13 (23) 4/11 (36) 4/17 (24) 0 2/15 (13) 1/11 (9)
   > 60 h 0 0 0 4/17 (24) 5/15 (33) 3/11 (27)
Household size - mean ± SD 3.8 (1.2) 3.8 (1.2) 2.2 (1.1) 3.9 (1.3) 3.5 (0.9) 3.7 (1.1)
Household Contacts - n 36 31 39 46 38 28
Age (years) - median (IQR) 35 (18-40) 37 (12-43) 34 (19-42) 38 (12-43) 35(17-42) 35 (15-43)
Age < 14 years - n/n (%) 6/36 (17) 8/31 (26) 6/39 (15) 13/46 (28) 8/38 (21) 6/28 (21)
Sex male - n/n (%) 18/36 (50) 15/31 (49) 17/39 (44) 21/46 (46) 19/38 (50) 16/28 (57)
Vaccinated* - n/n (%) 0 1/31 (3) 1/39 (3) 6/46 (13) 7/38 (18) 1/28 (4)
Chronic Illness - n/n (%) 3/35 (9) 2/27 (7) 3/37 (8) 13/46 (28) 8/38 (21) 3/28 (11)
  1. IQR Inter-Quartile-Range, SD Standard deviation. * Vaccination defined as vaccination against pandemic influenza in the pandemic season 2009/10 and trivalent seasonal vaccine in 2010/11, at least 14 days before symptom onset in index patient. ** Antiviral therapy defined as treatment with oseltamivir or zanamivir within 2 days of symptom onset