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Table 1 Univariate analysis of the factors associated with a delay (defined according to the median value (cutoff)) in initiating treatment for tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals

From: Associated factors for treatment delay in pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals: a nested case-control study

Variable   Delayed (> 41 days) No delay (≤ 41 days) OR 95%- CI p-value
n(120) % n(122) %
BIOLOGICAL         
Sex (n = 242)        
Female   35 29.17 39 31.97 1.00   
Male   85 70.83 83 68.03 1.14 0.66-1.98 0.6365
Age (n = 242)        
< 30 years   24 20.00 24 19.67 1.00   
30 – 49 years   80 66.67 79 64.75 1.01 0.53-1.94 0.9695
≥ 50 years   16 13.33 19 15.57 0.84 0.35-2.02 0.6997
SOCIOECONOMIC         
Town of residence (n = 239)        
Countryside   20 16.81 19 15.83 1.00   
Capital/metropolitan region   99 83.19 101 84.17 0.93 0.47-1.85 0.8387
Marital status (n = 241)        
Married   26 21.67 25 20.66 1.00   
Single/separated/widowed   94 78.33 96 79.34 0.94 0.51-1.75 0.8485
Living with (n = 228)        
Family/partner   92 81.42 97 84.35 1.00   
Alone   21 18.58 18 15.65 1.23 0.62-2.48 0.5571
Education (n = 241)        
Up to 9 years of school   67 56.30 77 63.11 1.00   
9 or more years of school   52 43.70 45 36.89 1.33 0.79-2.23 0.2814
In employment (n = 241)        
No   83 69.75 83 68.03 1.00   
Yes   36 30.25 39 31.97 0.92 0.53-1.59 0.7737
Lifestyle         
Drinking (n = 208)        
Abstainer/light drinker   91 91.00 100 92.59 1.00   
Moderate/heavy   9 9.00 8 7.41 1.24 0.45-3.42 0.6757
Smoking (n = 241)        
Never smoked   44 36.97 51 41.80 1.00   
Ex-smoker   49 41.18 51 41.80 1.11 0.63-1.96 0.7076
Smoker   26 21.85 20 16.39 1.51 0.74-3.09 0.2569
Use of illicit drugs (n = 239)        
No   70 59.32 94 77.69 1.00   
Yes   48 40.68 27 22.31 2.39 1.37-4.24 0.0025
Use of marijuana (n = 239)        
Yes   47 39.83 27 22.31 1.00   
No   71 60.17 94 77.69 0.43 0.24-0.76 0.0038
Use of cocaine (n = 239)        
Yes   19 16.10 9 7.44 1.00   
No   99 83.90 112 92.56 0.42 0.17-0.94 0.0417
Use of crack (n = 239)        
Yes   23 19.49 7 5.79 1.00   
No   95 80.51 114 94.21 0.25 0.10-0.59 0.0025
Use of shoemaker glue (n = 239)        
Yes   11 9.32 11 9.09 1.00   
No   107 90.68 110 90.91 0.97 0.40-2.36 0.9507
Variables   (Delayed) > 41 days (No delay) ≤ 41 days OR 95%- CI p-value
n % n %  
HIV Variables         
Opportunistic disease (n = 238)        
Yes   73 72.12 72 71.96 1.00   
No   45 27.88 48 28.04 0.92 0.55-1.56 0.7682
AIDS (n = 238)        
Yes   53 44.92 57 47.50 1.00   
No   65 55.08 63 52.50 1.11 0.67-1.85 0.6893
CD4 Count (n = 175)        
≤ 50 cels/mm3   27 32.14 23 25.27 1.00   
51 – 200 cels/mm3   25 29.76 35 38.46 0.61 0.28-1.29 0.1982
201 – 500 cels/mm3   22 26.19 24 26.37 0.78 0.35-1.74 0.5458
>500 cels/mm3   10 11.90 9 9.89 0.95 0.33-2.77 0.9189
Use of ART (n = 240)        
Yes   67 55.83 73 60.83 1.00   
No   53 44.17 47 39.17 1.23 0.74-2.06 0.4323
TB VARIABLES         
Place where initiated TB treatment (n = 180)        
Outpatients   42 46.67 42 46.67 1.00   
Inpatients   48 53.33 48 53.33 1.00 0.56-1.80 1.0000
Standard chest x-ray (n = 220)        
Atypical   92 85.19 92 82.14 1.00   
Normal   1 0.93 3 2.68 0.33 0.02-2.66 0.3453
Typical   15 13.89 17 15.18 0.88 0.41-1.87 0.7443
Contact with person undergoing TT TB (n = 239)        
Yes   81 68.64 84 69.42 1.00   
No   37 31.36 37 30.58 1.04 0.60-1.80 0.8966
TB contact in the household (n = 75)        
Yes   15 40.54 10 26.32 1.00   
No   22 59.46 28 73.68 0.52 0.19-1.38 0.1940
Previous treatment (n = 236)        
Yes   29 24.58 31 26.27 1.00   
No   89 75.42 87 73.73 1.09 0.61-1.97 0.7650
Sputum smear (n = 225)        
Positive   29 26.13 39 34.21 1.00   
Negative   58 52.25 41 35.96 1.90 1.02-3.58 0.0438
Not performed   24 21.62 34 29.82 0.95 0.47-1.93 0.8858
Sputum Culture (n = 195)        
Positive   14 15.05 9 8.82 1.00   
Negative   27 29.03 18 17.65 0.96 0.34-2.68 0.9447
Not performed   52 55.91 75 73.53 0.45 0.17-1.09 0.0815
Weight loss (n = 221)        
No   30 26.55 47 43.52 1.00   
Yes   83 73.45 61 56.48 2.13 1.22-3.78 0.0086
Anemia (n = 169)        
No   17 19.77 19 22.89 1.00   
Yes   69 80.23 64 77.11 1.20 0.58-2.54 0.6202
Asthenia (n = 241)        
No   40 33.33 64 52.89 1.00   
Yes   80 66.67 57 47.11 2.25 1.34-3.80 0.0023
Sweating (n = 233)        
No   56 47.46 70 60.87 1.00   
Yes   62 52.54 45 39.13 1.72 1.03-2.90 0.0406
Variables   Delayed > 41 days No delay ≤ 41 days OR 95%- CI p-value
n % n %  
Production of Sputum (n = 242)        
Yes   74 61.67 77 63.11 1.00   
No   46 38.33 45 36.89 1.06 0.63-1.79 0.8161
Dyspnea (n = 213)        
No   68 63.55 77 72.64 1.00   
Yes   39 36.45 29 27.36 1.52 0.85-2.74 0.1558
BMI (n = 211)        
≥ 18.5   75 72.12 77 71.96 1.00   
< 18.5   29 27.88 30 28.04 0.99 0.54-1.81 0.9803
Hemoptysis (n = 230)        
No   104 88.89 102 90.27 1.00   
Yes   13 11.11 11 9.73 1.16 0.50-2.75 0.7330
Chest Pain (n = 222)        
No   70 61.40 81 75.00 1.00   
Yes   44 38.60 27 25.00 1.89 1.07-3.38 0.0309
Constitutional Symptoms (n = 242)        
None   13 10.83 26 21.31 1.00 -  
1*   23 19.17 37 30.33 1.24 0.54-2.94 0.6136
2**   40 33.33 36 29.51 2.22 1.01-5.07 0.0515
3***   44 36.67 23 18.85 3.83 1.69-9.04 0.0016
  1. OR = Odds Ratio CI = Confidence Interval ART = Antiretroviral Therapy TB = Tuberculosis.
  2. TT TB = TB treatment.
  3. 1* asthenia or weight loss or fever.
  4. 2* (asthenia and weight loss) or (asthenia and fever) or (weight loss and fever).
  5. 3* asthenia and weight loss and fever.