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Table 4 Risk factors for all-cause hospitalization using Poisson regression among 737 HIV-exposed infants at 12 months of life in Pune, India

From: High Rates of All-cause and Gastroenteritis-related Hospitalization Morbidity and Mortality among HIV-exposed Indian Infants

  Univariate Multivariate
  IRR 95% CI P-value IRR 95% CI P-value
Infant Characteristics
   HIV status       
HIV-infected 1.82 1.42-2.33 <0.001 1.52 1.14-2.02 <0.05
HIV-exposed, uninfected 1.00      
   Female gender 0.73 0.60-0.90 <0.05 0.73 0.59-0.91 <0.05
   Gestational age       
<37 weeks 1.93 1.48-2.52 <0.001 1.55 1.11-2.17 0.01
≥37 weeks 1.00      
   APGAR at 5 minutes 1.01 1.001-1.008 0.02 1.00 1.00-1.01 0.16
   Birth weight       
<2500 grams 1.35 1.09-1.67 <0.05 1.12 0.86-1.46 0.40
≥2500 grams 1.00      
   Breastfeeding duration       
<4 months 1.04 0.83-1.29 0.75 1.06 0.85-1.34 0.60
4 - 6 months 0.98 0.69-1.41 0.93 1.01 0.70-1.47 0.94
>6 months 1.00      
   Cotrimoxazole use       
WHO-guided 1.14 0.94-1.40 0.19 1.05 0.83-1.32 0.68
Non WHO-guided 1.00      
   Extended-dose nevirapine       
Yes 0.99 0.81-1.20 0.89 0.97 0.79-1.19 0.75
No 1.00      
   Infant HAART       
Yes 2.20 1.37-3.53 <0.05    
No 1.00      
Maternal Characteristics
   Age (years) 1.06 1.03-1.09 <0.001 1.04 1.00-1.07 0.03
   Gravidity 1.11 1.00-1.22 0.04 1.04 0.93-1.16 0.49
   Marital status       
Not married 1.26 0.71-2.24 0.43    
Married 1.00      
   Education       
Primary (<6 years) 0.80 0.65-0.98 0.04 1.32 0.87-1.99 0.19
Secondary (6-10 years) 0.72 0.49-1.07 0.11 1.13 0.76-1.70 0.54
Tertiary (>10 years) 1.00      
   Religion       
Hindu 1.05 0.82-1.35 0.68    
Non-Hindu 1.00      
   Housewife       
Yes 0.78 0.61-0.99 0.04 0.88 0.68-1.13 0.31
No 1.00      
   Delivery type       
Vaginal 1.22 0.93-1.59 0.15    
Surgical 1.00      
   Hemoglobin¥       
Severe (<7 g/dl) 2.66 1.74-4.05 <0.05 1.24 0.85-1.83 0.27
Moderate (7-<10 g/dl) 1.21 0.92-1.60 0.17 1.18 0.93-1.51 0.17
Mild (10-11 g/dl) 1.32 1.04-1.67 0.02 1.22 0.89-1.66 0.22
Normal (>11 g/dl) 1.00      
   CD4 cell count¥       
<200 (cells/mm3) 1.93 1.40-2.67 <0.05 1.17 0.82-1.68 0.39
≥200 (cells/mm3) 1.00      
   Viral load (Log 10)¥       
≥5 log (copies/ml) 1.38 1.09-1.74 <0.05 1.15 0.89-1.47 0.28
<5 log (copies/ml) 1.00      
   Maternal HAART       
Yes 1.55 1.15-2.09 <0.05 1.31 0.94-1.83 0.11
No 1.00      
   Maternal AZT*       
Yes 0.86 0.69 - 1.07 0.17    
No 1.00      
   Maternal NVP*       
Yes 0.66 0.54-0.81 <0.05 0.85 0.68-1.07 0.16
No 1.00      
  1. NOTES:
  2. HAART use among HIV-infected mothers or infants at any time during the study. Infant HAART use was not included in the multivariate model as it was only applicable to HIV-infected infants.
  3. ¥Reported values are closed to delivery.
  4. *AZT = zidovudine for PMTCT, NVP = nevirapine (intrapartum, single-dose) for PMTCT.